4,734 research outputs found

    Charm and Beauty Production at HERA-B

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    The HERA-B experiment at DESY has acquired a data set of approximately 300,000 decays J/psi -> l+l- during its 2002/2003 data-taking period. These data are used to analyze the production of heavy quarks in proton-nucleus interactions at a center-of-mass energy of 41.6 GeV. In this article, preliminary results of two measurements are discussed, a measurement of nuclear effects in the production of J/psi mesons and a measurement of the b-bbar production cross section.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, to appear in Proc. XIII International Workshop on Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS2005), April 27 - May 1, 2005, Madison, Wisconsi

    Palaearctic biogeography revisited: evidence for the existence of a North African refugium for Western Palaearctic biota

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    Aim: In contrast to the attention given to southern Europe both as a centre of speciation and differentiation and as a Pleistocene refugium of Western Palae- arctic taxa, North Africa has been relatively neglected. In this paper, we set out to address this shortfall. Location North-West Africa and the Mediterranean. Methods We reviewed the existing literature on the biogeography of North Africa, and carried out analyses of species distribution data using parsimony, nestedness and co-occurrence methods. Results In many cases, distribution patterns of non-flying mammals, bats, amphibians, reptiles, butterflies, zygaenid moths and odonates demonstrated important biogeographical affinities between Europe and North Africa at the species level. On the other hand, species co-occurrence, nestedness and parsi- mony analysis also revealed some deep splits between the Maghreb and Europe; yet even in these cases the closest affinities were found between the Iberian Peninsula and the Maghreb. Furthermore, North Africa harbours the highest proportion of endemic taxa (13.7%) across all groups analysed. Many molecu- lar studies demonstrated a strong genetic cohesiveness between North Africa and Europe despite the potential barrier effect of the Mediterranean Sea. In other taxa, however, remarkable splits were detected. In addition, southern European genetic lineages were often nested within North African clades, and many taxa showed exceptionally high genetic variability and differentiation in this region. Main conclusions The Maghreb was an important differentiation and specia- tion centre for thermophilic organisms during the Pliocene and Pleistocene with high relevance as a colonization source for Europe. The regions around the sea straits of Gibraltar and Sicily have acted as important biogeographical links between North Africa and Europe at different times

    Heavy flavor jet tagging algorithm developments at CMS for HL-LHC

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    The rich physics program at the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) requires all final state particles to be reconstructed with good accuracy. However, it also poses formidable challenge of dealing with very high pileup. Different identification algorithms need to be upgraded along with the detectors to improve the overall event reconstruction in such a hostile collision environment. The new timing device in the proposed CMS detector at the HL-LHC allows for the construction of timing observables at the track-level as well as at the jet-level. This information when given as inputs to the deep neural networks, have a potential to improve the existing algorithms used for heavy flavor (HF) jet tagging. In this paper, the latest developments on the studies for HF jet tagging performance at the HL-LHC are presented

    Evolution along the Great Rift Valley: phenotypic and genetic differentiation of East African white-eyes (Aves, Zosteropidae)

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    The moist and cool cloud forests of East Africa represent a network of isolated habitats that are separated by dry and warm lowland savannah, offering an opportunity to investigate how strikingly different selective regimes affect species diversification. Here, we used the passerine genus Zosterops (white-eyes) from this region as our model system. Species of the genus occur in contrasting distribution settings, with geographical mountain isolation driving diversification, and savannah interconnectivity preventing differentiation. We analyze (1) patterns of phenotypic and genetic differentiation in high- and lowland species (different distribution settings), (2) investigate the potential effects of natural selection and temporal and spatial isolation (evolutionary drivers), and (3) critically review the taxonomy of this species complex. We found strong phenotypic and genetic differentiation among and within the three focal species, both in the highland species complex and in the lowland taxa. Altitude was a stronger predictor of phenotypic patterns than the current taxonomic classification. We found longitudinal and latitudinal phenotypic gradients for all three species. Furthermore, wing length and body weight were significantly correlated with altitude and habitat type in the highland species Z.poliogaster. Genetic and phenotypic divergence showed contrasting inter- and intraspecific structures. We suggest that the evolution of phenotypic characters is mainly driven by natural selection due to differences in the two macro-habitats, cloud forest and savannah. In contrast, patterns of neutral genetic variation appear to be rather driven by geographical isolation of the respective mountain massifs. Populations of the Z.poliogaster complex, as well as Z.senegalensis and Z.abyssinicus, are not monophyletic based on microsatellite data and have higher levels of intraspecific differentiation compared to the currently accepted species

    Morphology Of Current Of Injury Does Not Predict Long Term Active Fixation ICD Lead Performance

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    Background: Currents of injury (COI) have been associated with improved lead performance during perioperative measurements in pacemaker and ICD implants. Their relevance on long term lead stability remains unclear.Methods: Unipolar signals were recorded immediately after active fixation ICD lead positioning, blinded to the implanting surgeon. Signals were assigned to prespecified COI types by two independent investigators. Sensing, pacing as well as changes requiring surgical intervention were prospectively investigated for 3 months.Results: 105 consecutive ICD lead implants were studied. All could be assigned to a particular COI with 48 type 1, 43 type 2 and 14 type 3 signals. Pacing impedance at implant was 703.8±151.6 Ohm with a significant COI independent drop within the first week. Sensing was 10.6mV± 3.7mV and pacing threshold at implant was 0.8±0.3mV at 0.5ms at implant. There was no significant difference between COI groups at implant and during a 3 months follow up regarding sensing, pacing nor surgical revisions.Conclusions: Three distinct patterns of unipolar endocardial potentials were observed in active fixation ICD lead implant, but COI morphology did not predict lead performance after 3 months

    Measurements of branching fraction ratios and CP-asymmetries in suppressed B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)K^- and B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)pi^- decays

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    We report the first reconstruction in hadron collisions of the suppressed decays B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)K^- and B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)pi^-, sensitive to the CKM phase gamma, using data from 7 fb^-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider. We reconstruct a signal for the B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)K^- suppressed mode with a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, and measure the ratios of the suppressed to favored branching fractions R(K) = [22.0 \pm 8.6(stat)\pm 2.6(syst)]\times 10^-3, R^+(K) = [42.6\pm 13.7(stat)\pm 2.8(syst)]\times 10^-3, R^-(K)= [3.8\pm 10.3(stat)\pm 2.7(syst]\times 10^-3, as well as the direct CP-violating asymmetry A(K) = -0.82\pm 0.44(stat)\pm 0.09(syst) of this mode. Corresponding quantities for B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)pi^- decay are also reported.Comment: 8 pages, 1 figure, accepted by Phys.Rev.D Rapid Communications for Publicatio

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum