16 research outputs found

    The Price is Wrong: A Biblical Approach to Punitive Damages

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    A graphene-based hydrogel monolith with tailored surface chemistry for PFAS passive sampling

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    Aquatic contamination by per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) has attracted global attention due to their environmental and health concerns. Current health advisories and surface water regulatory limits require PFAS detection in the parts per trillion (ppt) range. One way to achieve those low detection limits is to use a reliable passive sampling-based monitoring tool for PFAS, as exists for numerous nonpolar persistent organic pollutants. Here we introduce a new graphene-based hydrogel monolith and describe its synthesis, chemical functionalization, property characterization, and testing as a PFAS equilibrium passive sampler. The graphene monoliths were self-assembled by hydrothermal treatment from graphene oxide (GO) aqueous dispersions to produce free standing cylinders of ∼563 mm3 volume consisting of 4 wt% thin-walled porous graphene and ∼96 wt% water. The uptake of 23 PFAS was measured on the as-produced monoliths, and equilibrium partition coefficients (KSW), were derived for longer chain (C ≥ 8) perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) and neutral precursors such as sulfonamides (log KSW range 1.9–3.6). To increase the KSW for shorter chain PFAA, the monoliths were chemically modified by a new diazonium-based grafting reaction that introduces positive surface charge without damage to the graphenic backbone. Introduction of benzylamine moieties through the diazonium intermediate switches zeta potential at pH 7 from −45 mV (as-produced graphene) to +5 mV. This modification increased the sorption of short and middle chain PFAA by ten-fold (e.g. log KSW for PFBA increased from 1.3 to 2.2), thereby improving the functionality of the passive sampler device for a wider range of PFAS. Field deployments demonstrated that the graphene monoliths were capable of detecting key PFAS in the Delaware River

    31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016) : part two

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    Background The immunological escape of tumors represents one of the main ob- stacles to the treatment of malignancies. The blockade of PD-1 or CTLA-4 receptors represented a milestone in the history of immunotherapy. However, immune checkpoint inhibitors seem to be effective in specific cohorts of patients. It has been proposed that their efficacy relies on the presence of an immunological response. Thus, we hypothesized that disruption of the PD-L1/PD-1 axis would synergize with our oncolytic vaccine platform PeptiCRAd. Methods We used murine B16OVA in vivo tumor models and flow cytometry analysis to investigate the immunological background. Results First, we found that high-burden B16OVA tumors were refractory to combination immunotherapy. However, with a more aggressive schedule, tumors with a lower burden were more susceptible to the combination of PeptiCRAd and PD-L1 blockade. The therapy signifi- cantly increased the median survival of mice (Fig. 7). Interestingly, the reduced growth of contralaterally injected B16F10 cells sug- gested the presence of a long lasting immunological memory also against non-targeted antigens. Concerning the functional state of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), we found that all the immune therapies would enhance the percentage of activated (PD-1pos TIM- 3neg) T lymphocytes and reduce the amount of exhausted (PD-1pos TIM-3pos) cells compared to placebo. As expected, we found that PeptiCRAd monotherapy could increase the number of antigen spe- cific CD8+ T cells compared to other treatments. However, only the combination with PD-L1 blockade could significantly increase the ra- tio between activated and exhausted pentamer positive cells (p= 0.0058), suggesting that by disrupting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis we could decrease the amount of dysfunctional antigen specific T cells. We ob- served that the anatomical location deeply influenced the state of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. In fact, TIM-3 expression was in- creased by 2 fold on TILs compared to splenic and lymphoid T cells. In the CD8+ compartment, the expression of PD-1 on the surface seemed to be restricted to the tumor micro-environment, while CD4 + T cells had a high expression of PD-1 also in lymphoid organs. Interestingly, we found that the levels of PD-1 were significantly higher on CD8+ T cells than on CD4+ T cells into the tumor micro- environment (p < 0.0001). Conclusions In conclusion, we demonstrated that the efficacy of immune check- point inhibitors might be strongly enhanced by their combination with cancer vaccines. PeptiCRAd was able to increase the number of antigen-specific T cells and PD-L1 blockade prevented their exhaus- tion, resulting in long-lasting immunological memory and increased median survival

    The Treatment of Infertility Using Naturopathic and Traditional Chinese Medicine

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    This thesis is being archived as a Digitized Shelf Copy for campus access to current students and staff only. We currently cannot provide this open access without the author's permission. If you are the author of this work and desire to provide it open access or wish access removed, please contact the Wahlstrom Library to discuss permission.Objective – This thesis was written to analyze the effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (acupuncture as well as herbs) and naturopathic medicine in the treatment of idiopathic infertility. Research articles included looked at the efficacy of nutritional supplementation, herbal supplementation, acupuncture, and Chinese patent remedies. Basic Procedures – The majority of the research articles were based upon searches in PubMed. Other major resources include The Textbook of Natural Medicine (4th Edition) and the Women’s Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine by Tori Hudson ND. Main Findings – Naturopathic medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine appear to be efficacious alternatives in the treatment of idiopathic infertility. Principal Conclusions – Lifestyle modification should be addressed with patients with idiopathic infertility. Research has found that smoking, excessive caffeine, and a low or high BMI could be implicated in the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility. According to research, emphasis should also be placed upon a nutrient rich diet. Without important vitamins and minerals such as B vitamins, vitamin E, zinc, and selenium in order to produce viable offspring. Herbal supplementation should be included in patients who have difficulty regulating hormones. Acupuncture and Chinese herbs may also prove to be effective in the treatment of idiopathic infertility especially when used in combination with IVF techniques