2,827 research outputs found

    Business Implications of Divergences in Multi-Jurisdictional Merger Review by International Competition Enforcement Agencies

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    Antitrust and competition laws lie at the nexus of international law and business. Since 1890, antitrust law has expanded from its origins of regulating trusts in the United States to what is now a global body of law. However, this expansion has not come without drawbacks. As the number of worldwide competition review and enforcement agencies in both developing and developed nations continues to increase, multinational businesses contemplating mergers are faced with growing uncertainty and transaction costs. These escalating costs have led business community leaders to conclude that greater harmonization of merger law enforcement, at both the substantive and the procedural levels, would be of significant benefit

    Creating an integrated payment system: the evolution of Fedwire

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    Adapted from remarks given before the Seminar on Payment Systems in the European Union in Frankfurt, Germany, on February 27, 1997.Fedwire ; Electronic funds transfers ; Federal Reserve System

    Specialised minds: extending adaptive explanations of personality to the evolution of psychopathology

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    Traditional evolutionary theory invoked natural and sexual selection to explain species- and sex-typical traits. However, some heritable inter-individual variability in behaviour and psychology – personality – is probably adaptive. Here we extend this insight to common psychopathological traits. Reviewing key findings from three background areas of importance – theoretical models, non-human personality and evolved human social dynamics – we propose that a combination of social niche specialisation, negative frequency-dependency, balancing selection and adaptive developmental plasticity should explain adaptation for individual differences in psychology – ‘specialised minds’ – explaining some variance in personality and psychopathology trait dimensions, which share various characteristics. We suggest that anthropological research of behavioural differences should be extended past broad demographic factors (age and sex) to include individual specialisations. As a first step towards grounding psychopathology in ancestral social structure, we propose a minimum plausible prevalence, given likely ancestral group sizes, for negatively frequency-dependent phenotypes to be maintained as specialised tails of adaptive distributions – below the calculated prevalence, specialisation is highly unlikely. For instance, chronic highly debilitating forms of autism or schizophrenia are too rare for such explanations, whereas attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and broad autism phenotypes are common enough to have existed in most hunter-gatherer bands, making adaptive explanations more plausible

    Accommodative dysfunction in patients with cerebral palsy: Appropriate nearpoint prescribing

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    This study was designed to inform the eyecare practitioner of accommodative dysfunction in patients with Cerebral Palsy (CP), and more importantly, to give guidelines for successful prescribing of nearpoint lenses. Files were obtained from the Oregon School for the Blind, in association with the Oregon Lions Statewide Low Vision Clinic. Inclusion criteria included a diagnosis of CP, a Monocular Estimate Method (MEM) retinoscopy finding indicating an accommodative dysfunction, and a nearpoint lens prescription prescribed. Surveys were sent to the vision teachers of these patients to assess the effect of the nearpoint lenses on daily activities. The results were analyzed and discussed; two successful examples were presented. It was found that patients who had the greatest success functioned on a higher cognitive level, received initial training with the prescription and continued support, and in addition, were given adequate time to adapt to the prescription. It was also shown that even though the patient may not appear to appreciate the aid a near prescription provides, a nearpoint lens should be attempted for those who are found to have CP with accommodative dysfunction

    What’s in a Name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of Teaching

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    Student ratings of teaching play a significant role in career outcomes for higher education instructors. Although instructor gender has been shown to play an important role in influencing student ratings, the extent and nature of that role remains contested. While difficult to separate gender from teaching practices in person, it is possible to disguise an instructor’s gender identity online. In our experiment, assistant instructors in an online class each operated under two different gender identities. Students rated the male identity significantly higher than the female identity, regardless of the instructor’s actual gender, demonstrating gender bias. Given the vital role that student ratings play in academic career trajectories, this finding warrants considerable attention

    What’s in a Name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of Teaching

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    Student ratings of teaching play a significant role in career outcomes for higher education instructors. Although instructor gender has been shown to play an important role in influencing student ratings, the extent and nature of that role remains contested. While difficult to separate gender from teaching practices in person, it is possible to disguise an instructor’s gender identity online. In our experiment, assistant instructors in an online class each operated under two different gender identities. Students rated the male identity significantly higher than the female identity, regardless of the instructor’s actual gender, demonstrating gender bias. Given the vital role that student ratings play in academic career trajectories, this finding warrants considerable attention

    What’s in a Name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of Teaching

    Get PDF
    Student ratings of teaching play a significant role in career outcomes for higher education instructors. Although instructor gender has been shown to play an important role in influencing student ratings, the extent and nature of that role remains contested. While difficult to separate gender from teaching practices in person, it is possible to disguise an instructor’s gender identity online. In our experiment, assistant instructors in an online class each operated under two different gender identities. Students rated the male identity significantly higher than the female identity, regardless of the instructor’s actual gender, demonstrating gender bias. Given the vital role that student ratings play in academic career trajectories, this finding warrants considerable attention

    What’s in a Name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of Teaching

    Get PDF
    Student ratings of teaching play a significant role in career outcomes for higher education instructors. Although instructor gender has been shown to play an important role in influencing student ratings, the extent and nature of that role remains contested. While difficult to separate gender from teaching practices in person, it is possible to disguise an instructor’s gender identity online. In our experiment, assistant instructors in an online class each operated under two different gender identities. Students rated the male identity significantly higher than the female identity, regardless of the instructor’s actual gender, demonstrating gender bias. Given the vital role that student ratings play in academic career trajectories, this finding warrants considerable attention

    Evobiopsychosocial Medicine

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    The biopsychosocial model remains the de facto framework of current healthcare, but lacks causational depth, scientific rigour, or any recognition of the importance of evolutionary theory for understanding health and disease. In this article it is updated to integrate Tinbergen’s four questions with the three biopsychosocial levels. This ‘evobiopsychosocial’ schema provides a more complete framework for understanding causation of medical conditions. Its application is exemplified by tabulating depression, rheumatoid arthritis and COVID-19 within its format, which highlights the direct research and practical applications uniquely offered by evolutionary medicine. An evobiopsychosocial framework can serve as a useful tool to introduce evolutionary concepts into mainstream medicine by highlighting the broad and specific contributions of evolutionary analysis to researching, treating and preventing health conditions, providing a suitable next step for the mainstream model of medicine
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