74 research outputs found

    Identification of Topping Responsive Proteins in Tobacco Roots

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    Tobacco plant has many responses to topping, such as the increase in ability of nicotine synthesis and secondary growth of roots. Some topping responsive miRNAs and genes had been identified in our previous work, but it is not enough to elaborate mechanism of tobacco response to topping. Here, topping responsive proteins were screened from tobacco roots with two-dimensional electrophoresis. Of these proteins, calretulin (CRT) and Auxin-responsive protein IAA9 were related to the secondary growth of roots, LRR disease resistance, heat shock protein 70 and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase 1(FPPS)were involved in wounding stress response, and F-box protein played an important role in promoting the ability of nicotine synthesis after topping. In addition, there were five tobacco bHLH proteins (NtbHLH, NtMYC1a, NtMYC1b, NtMYC2a and NtMYC2b) related to nicotine synthesis. It was suggested that NtMYC2 might be the main positive transcription factor and NtbHLH protein is a negative regulator in the JA-mediating activation of nicotine synthesis after topping. Tobacco topping activates some comprehensive biology processes involving IAA and JA signaling pathway, and the identification of these proteins will be helpful to understand the process of topping response

    Bridging the Granularity Gap for Acoustic Modeling

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    While Transformer has become the de-facto standard for speech, modeling upon the fine-grained frame-level features remains an open challenge of capturing long-distance dependencies and distributing the attention weights. We propose \textit{Progressive Down-Sampling} (PDS) which gradually compresses the acoustic features into coarser-grained units containing more complete semantic information, like text-level representation. In addition, we develop a representation fusion method to alleviate information loss that occurs inevitably during high compression. In this way, we compress the acoustic features into 1/32 of the initial length while achieving better or comparable performances on the speech recognition task. And as a bonus, it yields inference speedups ranging from 1.20×\times to 1.47×\times. By reducing the modeling burden, we also achieve competitive results when training on the more challenging speech translation task.Comment: ACL 2023 Finding

    Comparative efficacy of different renin angiotensin system blockade therapies in patients with IgA nephropathy: a Bayesian network meta-analysis of 17 RCTs

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    Background IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is still one of the most prevalent forms of primary glomerulonephritis globally. However, no guidelines have clearly indicated which kinds of renin angiotensin system blockade therapies (ACEIs or ARBs or their combination) in patients with IgAN result in a greater reduction in proteinuria and a better preservation of kidney function. Thus, we conducted a Bayesian network analysis to evaluate the relative effects of these three therapy regimens in patients with IgAN. Methods The protocol was registered in PROSPERO with ID CRD42017073726. We comprehensively searched the PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, China Biology Medicine disc, WanFang and CNKI databases for studies published since 1993 as well as some grey literature according to PICOS strategies. Pairwise meta-analysis and Bayesian network analysis were conducted to evaluate the effect of different regimens. Results Seventeen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 1,006 patients were analyzed. Co-administration of ACEIs and ARBs had the highest probability (92%) of being the most effective therapy for reducing proteinuria and blood pressure, but ACEIs would be the most appropriate choice for protecting kidney function in IgAN. Conclusion The combination of ACEIs and ARBs seems to have a significantly better antiproteinuric effect and a greater reduction of blood pressure than ACEI or ARB monotherapy in IgAN. ACEIs appear to be a more renoprotective therapy regimen among three therapies

    Genome-wide annotation and comparative analysis of cuticular protein genes in the noctuid pest \u3cem\u3eSpodoptera litura\u3c/em\u3e

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    Insect cuticle is considered an adaptable and versatile building material with roles in the construction and function of exoskeleton. Its physical properties are varied, as the biological requirements differ among diverse structures and change during the life cycle of the insect. Although the bulk of cuticle consists basically of cuticular proteins (CPs) associated with chitin, the degree of cuticular sclerotization is an important factor in determining its physical properties. Spodoptera litura, the tobacco cutworm, is an important agricultural pest in Asia. Compared to the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori, another lepidopteran whose CP genes have been well annotated, S. litura has a shorter life cycle, hides in soil during daytime beginning in the 5th instar and is exposed to soil in the pupal stage without the protection of a cocoon. In order to understand how the CP genes may have been adapted to support the characteristic life style of S. litura, we searched its genome and found 287 putative cuticular proteins that can be classified into 9 CP families (CPR with three groups (RR-1, RR-2, RR-3), CPAP1, CPAP3, CPF, CPFL, CPT, CPG, CPCFC and CPLCA), and a collection of unclassified CPs named CPH. There were also 112 cuticular proteins enriched in Histidine residues with content varying from 6% to 30%, comprising many more His-rich cuticular proteins than B. mori. A phylogenetic analysis between S. litura, M. sexta and B. mori uncovered large expansions of RR-1 and RR-2 CPs, forming large gene clusters in different regions of S. liturachromosome 9. We used RNA-seq analysis to document the expression profiles of CPs in different developmental stages and tissues of S. litura. The comparative genomic analysis of CPs between S. litura and B. moriintegrated with the unique behavior and life cycle of the two species offers new insights into their contrasting ecological adaptations

    Circadian regulation of night feeding and daytime detoxification in a formidable Asian pest Spodoptera litura

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    Voracious feeding, trans-continental migration and insecticide resistance make Spodoptera litura among the most difficult Asian agricultural pests to control. Larvae exhibit strong circadian behavior, feeding actively at night and hiding in soil during daytime. The daily pattern of larval metabolism was reversed, with higher transcription levels of genes for digestion (amylase, protease, lipase) and detoxification (CYP450s, GSTs, COEs) in daytime than at night. To investigate the control of these processes, we annotated nine essential clock genes and analyzed their transcription patterns, followed by functional analysis of their coupling using siRNA knockdown of interlocked negative feedback system core and repressor genes (SlituClk, SlituBmal1 and SlituCwo). Based on phase relationships and overexpression in cultured cells the controlling mechanism seems to involve direct coupling of the circadian processes to E-boxes in responding promoters. Additional manipulations involving exposure to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid suggested that insecticide application must be based on chronotoxicological considerations for optimal effectiveness

    Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis Using Combination of Methotrexate and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets—A Quantitative Plasma Pharmacochemical and Pseudotargeted Metabolomic Approach

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    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by chronic destructive synovitis and is associated with progressive disability, systemic difficulties, premature death, and socioeconomic costs. Early intervention with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) like methotrexate (MTX) and its combination regimen would provide obvious benefits to patients, healthcare systems and society. MTX and tripterygium glycosides tablets (TGTS) are most frequently prescribed medicines for RA, and the combination of them occurs frequently in anti-RA prescriptions. While the underlying combination mechanisms and the affected variation of drug blood level remain unclear. According to the American College of Rheumatology criteria for improvement, clinical evaluation following three treatment groups (i.e., MTX and TGTS mono- and combined groups) were carried out at baseline and at the end of 12 weeks in a randomized controlled clinical trial. To monitor the affected variation of drug blood level and perturbation of metabolites caused by MTX plus TGTS combined to treat active RA, the collected plasma samples were analyzed using RRLC-QqQ-MS and UHPLC-QE Orbitrap HRMS instruments. As a result, 39 metabolites including 7 MTX-related metabolites, 13 TGTS-related migratory ingredients and 19 characteristic endogenous metabolites, were quantitatively determined in plasma samples of RA patients after oral administration. The potential mechanism of MTX and TGTS combination were preliminarily elucidated on the aspect of clinical biochemical test indicators integrated with quantitative plasma pharmacochemistry and the pseudotargeted metabolomics
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