137 research outputs found

    Progress of research on PD-1/PD-L1 in leukemia

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    Leukemia cells prevent immune system from clearing tumor cells by inducing the immunosuppression of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. In recent years, further understanding of the BM microenvironment and immune landscape of leukemia has resulted in the introduction of several immunotherapies, including checkpoint inhibitors, T-cell engager, antibody drug conjugates, and cellular therapies in clinical trials. Among them, the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis is a significant checkpoint for controlling immune responses, the PD-1 receptor on tumor-infiltrating T cells is bound by PD-L1 on leukemia cells. Consequently, the activation of tumor reactive T cells is inhibited and their apoptosis is promoted, preventing the rejection of the tumor by immune system and thus resulting in the occurrence of immune tolerance. The PD-1/PD-L1 axis serves as a significant mechanism by which tumor cells evade immune surveillance, and PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors have been approved for the treatment of lymphomas and varieties of solid tumors. However, the development of drugs targeting PD-1/PD-L1 in leukemia remains in the clinical-trial stage. In this review, we tally up the basic research and clinical trials on PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in leukemia, as well as discuss the relevant toxicity and impacts of PD-1/PD-L1 on other immunotherapies such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, bi-specific T-cell engager, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy

    The sequencing and characterization of chloroplast genome of Geranium sibiricum Linne

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    The complete chloroplast genome of Geranium sibiricum Linne. was sequenced, assembled and annotated. It is a circular form of 150,656 bp in length, which was separated into four distinct regions, a large single copy (LSC) of 73,862 bp, a small single copy region (SSC) of 52,666 bp, two inverted repeats (IR) of 12,064bp. A total of 124 genes were predicted, of which, 87 encode proteins, 4 rRNA, 33 tRNA. The evolutionary history was inferred using Maximum Likelihood method, and the result indicates that G. sibiricum was grouped within Geraniaceae, and comprised a clade with Geranium palmatum under 100% Bootstrap value

    Analysis of clinical characteristics and risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia complicated by parapneumonic pleural effusion in elderly patients

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    Abstract Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients usually present with parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE), which complicates the treatment of pneumonia. This study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of elderly CAP patients hospitalised with PPE. Methods The clinical data of 132 elderly patients with CAP were retrospectively analysed. A total of 54 patients with PPE (PPE group) and 78 patients without PPE (NPPE group) were included in this study. Clinical data, laboratory examinations, treatments and other relevant indicators were collected. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis will be used to explore the possible risk factors for PPE. Results The proportion of PPE in elderly patients with CAP was 40.9%. PPE patients were significantly more likely to be older, have comorbid neurological diseases, experience chest tightness, and have a lasting fever (P < 0.05). In contrast to NPPE patients, the total number of lymphocytes, serum albumin and blood sodium levels in the PPE group were significantly lower (P < 0.05). The blood D-dimer, C-reactive protein and CURB-65 score of PPE patients were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of NPPE patients. Multivariate logistic regression identified chest tightness (OR = 3.964, 95% CI: 1.254–12.537, P = 0.019), long duration of fever (OR = 1.108, 95%CI: 1.009–1.217, P = 0.03), low serum albumin (OR = 0.876, 95%CI: 0.790– 0.971, P = 0.012) or low blood sodium (OR = 0.896, 95%CI: 0.828–0.969, P = 0.006) as independently associated with the development of parapneumonic pleural effusion in the elderly. Conclusion This study has identified several clinical factors, such as chest tightness, long duration of fever, low serum albumin, and low blood sodium, as risk factors for the development of pleural effusion in elderly patients with CAP. Early identification and prompt management of these patients can prevent inappropriate treatment and reduce morbidity and mortality

    Stellera chamaejasme Roots as Raw Material for Pulp Production

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    Cellulosic pulps were prepared from Stellera chamaejasme roots using soda, soda-anthraquinone (soda-AQ), and kraft pulping processes. S. chamaejasme is composed of 73.5% holocellulose, 39.7% α-cellulose, and 17.6% lignin, similar to wheat straw and other non-wood plant materials. The ethanol–benzene extractives content of 9.2% is higher than other non-woods. The conditions used for all pulping experiments were as follows: a liquid/solid ratio of 5:1; a time-to-maximum temperature of 100 min; a maximum temperature of 160 °C; and a time-at-maximum temperature of 50 min. The results showed that the pulp yield was 31.27 to 36.83%, the kappa number was 16.32 to 19.42, and the pulps’ intrinsic viscosity was 854 to 976 mL/g. Tear index, tensile index, burst index, and brightness of the papers made from the above unbleached pulps were 12.60 to 13.62 mN•m2/g, 20.57 to 22.56 mN/g, 2.16 to 2.38 kPa•m2/g, and 15.3 to 18.3%, respectively