309 research outputs found

    Framing post-conflict societies: an analysis of the international pathologisation of Cambodia and the post-Yugoslav states

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    The article examines the pathologisation of post-conflict societies through a comparison of the framing of the Cambodian and post-Yugoslav states. The notion of failed states fixes culpability for war on societies in question, rendering the domestic populations dysfunational while casting international rescue interventions as functional. The article suggests that the discourse of pathologisation can be understood not as a means of explaining state crisis so much as legitimising an indefinite international presence and deferring self-government

    Narrating “Home”: Experiences of German Expellees after the Second World War

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    This article explores the experiences of forced displacement through the narratives of expellees in Germany after the Second World War. It considers how disruptions of “home” over time and space have led to constant deconstructing and reconstructing of home. Based on autobiographical interviews, this article argues that home is multidimensional and contradictory, changing over time and through experiences, becoming simultaneously connected to a specific place and time while transcending this rootedness. This continuous contestation of home has led expellees to form an imagined, idealized, and romanticized notion of their Heimat that exists in memory and is combined with their current home, Zuhause.Cet article Ă©tudie les expĂ©riences de dĂ©placement forcĂ© Ă  travers les rĂ©cits des expulsĂ©s en Allemagne Ă  la suite de la DeuxiĂšme Guerre mondiale. Il considĂšre le processus par lequel les perturbations dans l’idĂ©e d’un « chez-soi » dans le temps et l’espace ont menĂ© Ă  une dĂ©construction et reconstruction constante de cette notion. En se basant sur des entrevues autobiographiques, cet article avance que l’idĂ©e de « chez-soi » est multidimensionnelle et contradictoire, se transformant Ă  travers le temps et les expĂ©riences, s’attachant Ă  un lieu et temps particulier et en mĂȘme temps Ă©voluant au-delĂ  de cet enracinement. Cette contestation continuelle de l’idĂ©e de « chez-soi » a menĂ© les expulsĂ©s Ă  former une notion imaginĂ©e, idĂ©alisĂ©e et romantique de leur Heimat qui existe dans la mĂ©moire et qui est conjuguĂ©e avec l’idĂ©e de leur Zuhause, leur chez-soi actuel

    The German Abortion Decisions and the Protective Function in German and Canadian Constitutional Law

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    In the First and Second Abortion decisions, the German Constitutional Court drew on earlier jurisprudence to hold that the state was under a constitutional duty to protect the fetus from deprivations of its interest in life by the pregnant woman. In this article, we suggest that Canadian constitutional law scholars and reproductive rights advocates would benefit from examining the German abortion decisions despite their highly controversial nature. In our view, the benefits are twofold. First, the German cases demonstrate that recognizing the protective function can help clarify constitutional doctrine by revealing the tensions that underlie many difficult constitutional cases. Second, a synthetic reading of the German and Canadian Courts’ abortion jurisprudence generates a more fulsome and nuanced analysis of the issues raised in the those cases, as well as additional critical commentary on the Courts’ analyses and conclusions

    Mapping ground instability in areas of geotechnical infrastructure using satellite InSAR and Small UAV Surveying: a case study in Northern Ireland

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    Satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), geological data and Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) surveying was used to enhance our understanding of ground movement at five areas of interest in Northern Ireland. In total 68 ERS-1/2 images 1992–2000 were processed with the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) InSAR technique to derive the baseline ground instability scenario of key areas of interest for five stakeholders: TransportNI, Northern Ireland Railways, Department for the Economy, Arup, and Belfast City Council. These stakeholders require monitoring of ground deformation across either their geotechnical infrastructure (i.e., embankments, cuttings, engineered fills and earth retaining structures) or assessment of subsidence risk as a result of abandoned mine workings, using the most efficient, cost-effective methods, with a view to minimising and managing risk to their businesses. The InSAR results provided an overview of the extent and magnitude of ground deformation for a 3000 km2 region, including the key sites of the disused salt mines in Carrickfergus, the Belfast–Bangor railway line, Throne Bend and Ligoniel Park in Belfast, Straidkilly and Garron Point along the Antrim Coast Road, plus other urbanised areas in and around Belfast. Tailored SUAV campaigns with a X8 airframe and generation of very high resolution ortho-photographs and a 3D surface model via the Structure from Motion (SfM) approach at Maiden Mount salt mine collapse in Carrickfergus in 2016 and 2017 also demonstrate the benefits of very high resolution surveying technologies to detect localised deformation and indicators of ground instabilit

    Dilemmas in generic delimitation of Senegalia and allies (Caesalpinioideae, mimosoid clade): how to reconcile phylogenomic evidence with morphology and taxonomy?

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    Senegalia comprises 219 species distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of North and South America, Africa, Asia and Australia. Two sections are currently recognised within Senegalia and these are most readily distinguished by the differences in disposition of their cauline prickles, i.e. sect. Senegalia with prickles at or near leaf nodes and sect. Monacanthea with mostly internodal prickles. Previous phylogenetic studies, based primarily on small numbers of plastid DNA loci, found Senegalia to be monophyletic with two large subclades corresponding to the sections. Here, we present new phylogenomic evidence from 997 single-copy nuclear gene sequences for a small, but representative set of species. These new analyses show that Senegalia is non-monophyletic, but instead, forms a grade that is paraphyletic with respect to the remainder of the ingoid clade (i.e. Ingeae + Acacia s.s. + Acaciella), comprising two well-supported subclades most likely representing the same clades as found in previous phylogenetic studies of the genus and, interspersed between these, a third, moderately supported clade, comprising the genera Mariosousa, Pseudosenegalia and Parasenegalia. In marked contrast to the nuclear phylogeny, the two Senegalia clades are sister groups in the plastid phylogeny, based on analyses of 72 chloroplast genes, rendering the genus monophyletic, based on plastid data alone. We discuss this new evidence that Senegalia is non-monophyletic in relation to the marked cytonuclear discordance, high gene tree conflict and lack of resolution across this senegalioid grade and review the consistency of the key morphological characters distinguishing the two sections of Senegalia. We conclude that it is likely that Senegalia will need to be split into two (or possibly more) genera: a re-circumscribed Senegalia s.s. that corresponds to the existing Senegalia sect. Senegalia plus the S. ataxacantha group (Senegalia sect. Monacanthea s.s.; future studies may show that this group warrants generic status) and a new genus corresponding to the remainder of sect. Monacanthea (here designated as Senegalia sect. Monacanthea p.p.). However, re-delimiting Senegalia now would be premature given that the key morphological characters are not fully congruent with the two sections and pending denser phylogenetic sampling of taxa. A judiciously selected list of critical taxa is presented to facilitate future phylogenomic studies. Finally, we discuss the identity of Albizia leonardii, which is also placed in this senegalioid grade in these new phylogenomic analyses and place it in synonymy with Parasenegalia vogeliana

    Demonstrating high-precision photometry with a CubeSat: ASTERIA observations of 55 Cancri e

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    ASTERIA (Arcsecond Space Telescope Enabling Research In Astrophysics) is a 6U CubeSat space telescope (10 cm x 20 cm x 30 cm, 10 kg). ASTERIA's primary mission objective was demonstrating two key technologies for reducing systematic noise in photometric observations: high-precision pointing control and high-stabilty thermal control. ASTERIA demonstrated 0.5 arcsecond RMS pointing stability and ±\pm10 milliKelvin thermal control of its camera payload during its primary mission, a significant improvement in pointing and thermal performance compared to other spacecraft in ASTERIA's size and mass class. ASTERIA launched in August 2017 and deployed from the International Space Station (ISS) November 2017. During the prime mission (November 2017 -- February 2018) and the first extended mission that followed (March 2018 - May 2018), ASTERIA conducted opportunistic science observations which included collection of photometric data on 55 Cancri, a nearby exoplanetary system with a super-Earth transiting planet. The 55 Cancri data were reduced using a custom pipeline to correct CMOS detector column-dependent gain variations. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach was used to simultaneously detrend the photometry using a simple baseline model and fit a transit model. ASTERIA made a marginal detection of the known transiting exoplanet 55 Cancri e (∌2\sim2~\Rearth), measuring a transit depth of 374±170374\pm170 ppm. This is the first detection of an exoplanet transit by a CubeSat. The successful detection of super-Earth 55 Cancri e demonstrates that small, inexpensive spacecraft can deliver high-precision photometric measurements.Comment: 23 pages, 9 figures. Accepted in A

    Posterior Segment Ophthalmic Drug Delivery: Role of Muco-Adhesion with a Special Focus on Chitosan.

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    Posterior segment eye diseases (PSEDs) including age macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are amongst the major causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Due to the numerous barriers encountered, highly invasive intravitreal (IVT) injections represent the primary route to deliver drugs to the posterior eye tissues. Thus, the potential of a more patient friendly topical route has been widely investigated. Mucoadhesive formulations can decrease precorneal clearance while prolonging precorneal residence. Thus, they are expected to enhance the chances of adherence to corneal and conjunctival surfaces and as such, enable increased delivery to the posterior eye segment. Among the mucoadhesive polymers available, chitosan is the most widely explored due to its outstanding mucoadhesive characteristics. In this review, the major PSEDs, their treatments, barriers to topical delivery, and routes of topical drug absorption to the posterior eye are presented. To enable the successful design of mucoadhesive ophthalmic drug delivery systems (DDSs), an overview of mucoadhesion, its theory, characterization, and considerations for ocular mucoadhesion is given. Furthermore, chitosan-based DDs that have been explored to promote topical drug delivery to the posterior eye segment are reviewed. Finally, challenges of successful preclinical to clinical translation of these DDSs for posterior eye drug delivery are discussed