51 research outputs found

    Modeling Topic and Role Information in Meetings using the Hierarchical Dirichlet Process

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    Abstract. In this paper, we address the modeling of topic and role information in multiparty meetings, via a nonparametric Bayesian model called the hierarchical Dirichlet process. This model provides a powerful solution to topic modeling and a flexible framework for the incorporation of other cues such as speaker role information. We present our modeling framework for topic and role on the AMI Meeting Corpus, and illustrate the effectiveness of the approach in the context of adapting a baseline language model in a large-vocabulary automatic speech recognition system for multiparty meetings. The adapted LM produces significant improvements in terms of both perplexity and word error rate.

    A Parallel Training Algorithm for Hierarchical Pitman-Yor Process Language Models

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    The Hierarchical Pitman Yor Process Language Model (HPYLM) is a Bayesian language model based on a non-parametric prior, the Pitman-Yor Process. It has been demonstrated, both theoretically and practically, that the HPYLM can provide better smoothing for language modeling, compared with state-of-the-art approaches such as interpolated Kneser-Ney and modified Kneser-Ney smoothing. However, estimation of Bayesian language models is expensive in terms of both computation time and memory; the inference is approximate and requires a number of iterations to converge. In this paper, we present a parallel training algorithm for the HPYLM, which enables the approach to be applied in the context of automatic speech recognition, using large training corpora with large vocabularies. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm by estimating language models from corpora for meeting transcription containing over 200 million words, and observe significant reductions in perplexity and word error rate

    Semantic Relation Classification via Convolutional Neural Networks with Simple Negative Sampling

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    Syntactic features play an essential role in identifying relationship in a sentence. Previous neural network models often suffer from irrelevant information introduced when subjects and objects are in a long distance. In this paper, we propose to learn more robust relation representations from the shortest dependency path through a convolution neural network. We further propose a straightforward negative sampling strategy to improve the assignment of subjects and objects. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the SemEval-2010 Task 8 dataset

    Power Law Discounting for N-Gram Language Models

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    We present an approximation to the Bayesian hierarchical Pitman-Yor process language model which maintains the power law distribution over word tokens, while not requiring a computationally expensive approximate inference process. This approximation, which we term power law discounting, has a similar computational complexity to interpolated and modified Kneser-Ney smoothing. We performed experiments on meeting transcription using the NIST RT06s evaluation data and the AMI corpus, with a vocabulary of 50,000 words and a language model training set of up to 211 million words. Our results indicate that power law discounting results in statistically significant reductions in perplexity and word error rate compared to both interpolated and modified Kneser-Ney smoothing, while producing similar results to the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process language model

    Hierarchical Bayesian Language Models for Conversational Speech Recognition

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    Traditional n-gram language models are widely used in state-of-the-art large vocabulary speech recognition systems. This simple model suffers from some limitations, such as overfitting of maximum-likelihood estimation and the lack of rich contextual knowledge sources. In this paper, we exploit a hierarchical Bayesian interpretation for language modeling, based on a nonparametric prior called the Pitman--Yor process. This offers a principled approach to language model smoothing, embedding the power-law distribution for natural language. Experiments on the recognition of conversational speech in multiparty meetings demonstrate that by using hierarchical Bayesian language models, we are able to achieve significant reductions in perplexity and word error rate

    Using Participant Role in Multiparty Meetings as Prior Knowledge for Nonparametric Topic Modeling

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    In this paper we introduce our attempts to incorporate the participant role information in multiparty meetings for document modeling using the hierarchical Dirichlet process. The perplexity and automatic speech recognition results demonstrate that the participant role information is a promising prior knowledge source to be combined with language models for automatic speech recognition and interaction modeling for multiparty meetings

    An EM Algorithm for SCFG in Formal Syntax-based Translation

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    In this paper, we investigate the use of bilingual parsing on parallel corpora to better estimate the rule parameters in a formal syntax-based machine translation system, which are normally estimated from the inaccurate heuristics. We use an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm to re-estimate the parameters of synchronous context-free grammar (SCFG) rules according to the derivation knowledge from parallel corpora based on maximum likelihood principle, rather than using only the heuristic information. The proposed algorithm produces significantly better BLEU scores than a state-of-the-art formal syntax-based machine translation system on the IWSLT 2006 Chinese to English task