80 research outputs found

    Tensor Product Generation Networks for Deep NLP Modeling

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    We present a new approach to the design of deep networks for natural language processing (NLP), based on the general technique of Tensor Product Representations (TPRs) for encoding and processing symbol structures in distributed neural networks. A network architecture --- the Tensor Product Generation Network (TPGN) --- is proposed which is capable in principle of carrying out TPR computation, but which uses unconstrained deep learning to design its internal representations. Instantiated in a model for image-caption generation, TPGN outperforms LSTM baselines when evaluated on the COCO dataset. The TPR-capable structure enables interpretation of internal representations and operations, which prove to contain considerable grammatical content. Our caption-generation model can be interpreted as generating sequences of grammatical categories and retrieving words by their categories from a plan encoded as a distributed representation

    Attentive Tensor Product Learning

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    This paper proposes a new architecture - Attentive Tensor Product Learning (ATPL) - to represent grammatical structures in deep learning models. ATPL is a new architecture to bridge this gap by exploiting Tensor Product Representations (TPR), a structured neural-symbolic model developed in cognitive science, aiming to integrate deep learning with explicit language structures and rules. The key ideas of ATPL are: 1) unsupervised learning of role-unbinding vectors of words via TPR-based deep neural network; 2) employing attention modules to compute TPR; and 3) integration of TPR with typical deep learning architectures including Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Feedforward Neural Network (FFNN). The novelty of our approach lies in its ability to extract the grammatical structure of a sentence by using role-unbinding vectors, which are obtained in an unsupervised manner. This ATPL approach is applied to 1) image captioning, 2) part of speech (POS) tagging, and 3) constituency parsing of a sentence. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach

    AttnGAN: Fine-Grained Text to Image Generation with Attentional Generative Adversarial Networks

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    In this paper, we propose an Attentional Generative Adversarial Network (AttnGAN) that allows attention-driven, multi-stage refinement for fine-grained text-to-image generation. With a novel attentional generative network, the AttnGAN can synthesize fine-grained details at different subregions of the image by paying attentions to the relevant words in the natural language description. In addition, a deep attentional multimodal similarity model is proposed to compute a fine-grained image-text matching loss for training the generator. The proposed AttnGAN significantly outperforms the previous state of the art, boosting the best reported inception score by 14.14% on the CUB dataset and 170.25% on the more challenging COCO dataset. A detailed analysis is also performed by visualizing the attention layers of the AttnGAN. It for the first time shows that the layered attentional GAN is able to automatically select the condition at the word level for generating different parts of the image

    Hierarchically Structured Reinforcement Learning for Topically Coherent Visual Story Generation

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    We propose a hierarchically structured reinforcement learning approach to address the challenges of planning for generating coherent multi-sentence stories for the visual storytelling task. Within our framework, the task of generating a story given a sequence of images is divided across a two-level hierarchical decoder. The high-level decoder constructs a plan by generating a semantic concept (i.e., topic) for each image in sequence. The low-level decoder generates a sentence for each image using a semantic compositional network, which effectively grounds the sentence generation conditioned on the topic. The two decoders are jointly trained end-to-end using reinforcement learning. We evaluate our model on the visual storytelling (VIST) dataset. Empirical results from both automatic and human evaluations demonstrate that the proposed hierarchically structured reinforced training achieves significantly better performance compared to a strong flat deep reinforcement learning baseline.Comment: Accepted to AAAI 201