154 research outputs found

    Screening Child Social-emotional and Behavioral Functioning in Low-Income African Country Contexts

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    Background: children in low-income countries (LICs). Currently, there is little information available on the use of brief screening instruments Increased attention is being paid to identifying and responding to the social-emotional and behavioral needs of in LICs. The lack of psychometrically sound brief assessment tools creates a challenge in determining the population prevalence of child social-emotional and behavioral risk burden in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) country contexts. This study sought to determine the reliability and validity of three brief parent-rated screening tools-the Social Competence Scale (SCS), Pictorial Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PPSC), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)-in Uganda. These tools consider both strength- and pathology-based dimensions of child outcomes. Methods: Parents of 154 Ugandan 5-9 year-old children who were enrolled in Nursery to Primary 3 in Kampala (the capital city of Uganda) and part of a school-based mental health intervention trial were recruited and interviewed. About 54% of parents had educational attainment of primary school level or less. One hundred and one of these parents were interviewed a second time, about 5 months after the first/baseline assessment. Data from both time points were utilized to assess reliability and validity. Results: Inspection of psychometric properties supports the utility of these three brief screening measures to assess children\u27s social-emotional and behavioral functioning as demonstrated by adequate internal consistency, temporal stability, discriminant validity, concurrent validity, and predictive validity. Subscales from three screening measures were inter-related and associated with family characteristics, such as parental depression and food insecurity, in the expected directions. Conclusion: This study provides evidence supporting the appropriateness of using three tools and applying the developmental and behavioral constructs measured in each assessment in a low-income African setting

    Applying technology to promote sexual and reproductive health and prevent gender based violence for adolescents in low and middle-income countries: digital health strategies synthesis from an umbrella review

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    Aim: Adolescents in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are facing numerous developmental, sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges including exposure to multidimensional violence. Gender-based violence (GBV) specifically intimate partner violence (IPV) are both highly prevalent in LMICs and are strongly linked with poor SRH outcomes. However, GBV and IPV interventions have not yet been adequately integrated in SRH due to individual, social, cultural, service, and resource barriers. To promote long-term SRH, a more holistic approach that integrates GBV and IPV, and adolescent development needs is imperative. Digital health has the potential to address multiple service setup, provision, and addressing access barriers through designing and providing integrated SRH care. However, there are no guidelines for an integrated digital SRH and development promotion for adolescents in LMICs. Methods: An umbrella review was conducted to synthesize evidence in three inter-related areas of digital health intervention literature: (i) SRH, (ii) GBV specifically IPV as a subset, and (iii) adolescent development and health promotion. We first synthesize findings for each area of research, then further analyze the implications and opportunities to inform approaches to develop an integrated intervention that can holistically address multiple SRH needs of adolescents in LMICs. Articles published in English, between 2010 and 2020, and from PubMed were included. Results: Seventeen review articles met our review inclusion criterion. Our primary finding is that application of digital health strategies for adolescent SRH promotion is highly feasible and acceptable. Although effectiveness evidence is insufficient to make strong recommendations for interventions and best practices suggestions, some user-centered design guidelines have been proposed for web-based health information and health application design for adolescent use. Additionally, several digital health strategies have also been identified that can be used to further develop integrated GBV-IPV-SRH-informed services to improve adolescent health outcomes. We generated several recommendations and strategies to guide future digital based SRH promotion research from our review. Conclusions: Rigorous research that focuses on intervention effectiveness testing using a combination of digital health strategies and standardized albeit contextualized outcome measures would be important. Methodological improvement such as adoption of longitudinal experimental design will be crucial in generating evidence-based intervention and practice guidelines for adolescents in LMICs. Keywords: Gender-based violence, Intimate partner violence, Sexual and reproductive health, Low-and-middle - income countries, mHealth, Digital health, Adolescents Development, Revie

    Modifying Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Peripartum Adolescents in Sub-Saharan African Context: Reviewing Differential Contextual and Implementation Considerations

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    Background: This study describes adaptation and modification of World Health Organization (WHO) recommended group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-G) for depressed peripartum adolescents. The adaptation process includes accommodating contextual factors and strategies to address intervention implementation barriers, such as engagement problems with adolescents, caregivers, and providers, and stigma and dearth of mental health specialists. The modifications include and adolescent relevant iterations to the therapy format and content. Methods: A multi-stakeholder led two-stage intervention adaptation and modification process integrating mixed qualitative methods were used with pregnant and parenting adolescents, their partners, and health care workers. In-depth interviews focusing on personal, relationship, social, and cultural barriers experienced by adolescents were carried out modeled on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Focus group discussions with depressed adolescents on their experiences, feedback from caregivers, partners, health workers inform focused modifications. An IPT expert committee of three practitioners, along with UNICEF adolescent officer, and mental health policy expert from Ministry of Health and representative community advisory body reviewed the adaptations and modifications made to the WHO IPT-G manual. Discussion: Integration of mental health needs of peripartum adolescents as demonstrated in the stakeholder engagement process, adaptation of key terms into locally relevant language, determination of number of sessions, and user-centric design modifications to digitize a brief version of group interpersonal psychotherapy are presented

    Interpersonal Psychotherapy’s problem areas as an organizing framework to understand depression and sexual and reproductive health needs of Kenyan pregnant and parenting adolescents: a qualitative study

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    Background: Peripartum adolescents experience signifcant interpersonal transitions in their lives. Depression and emotional distress are often exacerbated by adolescents’ responses to these interpersonal changes. Improved understanding of pregnancy-related social changes and maladaptive responses to these shifts may inform novel approaches to addressing the mental health needs of adolescents during the perinatal period. The paper aims to understand the sources of psychological distress in peripartum adolescents and map these to Interpersonal Psychotherapy’s (IPT) problem areas as a framework to understand depression. Method: We conducted interviews in two Nairobi primary care clinics with peripartum adolescents ages 16–18 years (n=23) with experiences of depression, keeping interpersonal psychotherapy framework of problem areas in mind. We explored the nature of their distress, triggers, antecedents of distress associated with an unplanned pregnancy, quality of their relationships with their partner, parents, and other family members, perceived needs, and sources of support. Results: We found that the interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) framework of interpersonal problems covering grief and loss, role transitions, interpersonal disputes, and social isolation was instrumental in conceptualizing adolescent depression, anxiety, and stress in the perinatal period. Conclusion: Our interviews deepened understanding of peripartum adolescent mental health focusing on four IPT problem areas. The interpersonal framework yields meaningful information about adolescent depression and could help in identifying strategies for addressing their distress

    Unpacking Partnership, Engagement, and Collaboration Research to Inform Implementation Strategies Development: Theoretical Frameworks and Emerging Methodologies

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    Background: Partnership, engagement, and collaboration (PEC) are critical factors in dissemination and implementation (D&I) research. Despite a growing recognition that incorporating PEC strategies in D&I research is likely to increase the relevance, feasibility, impacts, and of evidence-based interventions or practices (EBIs, EBPs), conceptual frameworks and methodologies to guide the development and testing of PEC strategies in D&I research are lacking. To address this methodological gap, a review was conducted to summarize what we know, what we think we know, and what we need to know about PEC to inform D&I research.Methods: A cross-field scoping review, drawing upon a broad range of PEC related literature in health, was conducted. Publications reviewed focused on factors influencing PEC, and processes, mechanisms and strategies for promoting effective PEC. The review was conducted separately for three forms of partnerships that are commonly used in D&I research: (1) consumer-provider or patient-implementer partnership; (2) delivery system or implementation team partnership; and (3) sustainment/support or interagency/community partnership. A total of 39 studies, of which 21 were review articles, were selected for an in-depth review.Results: Across three forms of partnerships, four domains (cognitive, interpersonal/affective, behavioral, and contextual domains) were consistently identified as factors and strategies for promoting PEC. Depending on the stage (preparation or execution) and purpose of the partnership (regulating performance or managing maintenance), certain PEC strategies are more or less relevant. Recent developments of PEC frameworks, such as Partnership Stage of Change and multiple dynamic processes, provide more comprehensive conceptual explanations for PEC mechanisms, which can better guide PEC strategies selection and integration in D&I research.Conclusions: This review contributes to D&I knowledge by identifying critical domain factors, processes, or mechanisms, and key strategies for PEC, and offers a multi-level PEC framework for future research to build the evidence base. However, more research is needed to test PEC mechanisms

    Angiogenesis inhibitor therapies for advanced renal cell carcinoma: Toxicity and treatment patterns in clinical practice from a global medical chart review

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    The aim of this study was to assess the treatment patterns and safety of sunitinib, sorafenib and bevacizumab in real-world clinical settings in US, Europe and Asia. Medical records were abstracted at 18 community oncology clinics in the US and at 21 tertiary oncology centers in US, Europe and Asia for 883 patients ≥18 years who had histologically/cytologically confirmed diagnosis of advanced RCC and received sunitinib (n=631), sorafenib (n=207) or bevacizumab (n=45) as first‑line treatment. No prior treatment was permitted. Data were collected on all adverse events (AEs) and treatment modifications, including discontinuation, interruption and dose reduction. Treatment duration was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Demographics were similar across treatment groups and regions. Median treatment duration ranged from 6.1 to 10.7 months, 5.1 to 8.5 months and 7.5 to 9.8 months for sunitinib, sorafenib and bevacizumab patients, respectively. Grade 3/4 AEs were experienced by 26.0, 28.0 and 15.6% of sunitinib, sorafenib and bevacizumab patients, respectively. Treatment discontinuations occurred in 62.4 (Asia) to 63.1% (US) sunitinib, 68.8 (Asia) to 90.0% (Europe) sorafenib, and 66.7 (Asia) to 81.8% (US) bevacizumab patients. Globally, treatment modifications due to AEs occurred in 55.1, 54.2 and 50.0% sunitinib, sorafenib and bevacizumab patients, respectively. This study in a large, global cohort of advanced RCC patients found that angiogenesis inhibitors are associated with high rates of AEs and treatment modifications. Findings suggest an unmet need for more tolerable agents for RCC treatment