145,005 research outputs found

    A magnetically driven origin for the low luminosity GRB 170817A associated with GW170817

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    The gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A associated with GW170817 is subluminous and subenergetic compared with other typical short GRBs. It may be due to a relativistic jet viewed off-axis, or a structured jet, or cocoon emission. Giant flares from magnetars may possibly be ruled out. However, the luminosity and energetics of GRB 170817A is coincident with that of magnetar giant flares. After the coalescence of the binary neutron star, a hypermassive neutron star may be formed. The hypermassive neutron star may have magnetar-strength magnetic field. During the collapse of the hypermassive neutron star, the magnetic field energy will also be released. This giant-flare-like event may explain the the luminosity and energetics of GRB 170817A. Bursts with similar luminosity and energetics are expected in future neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole mergers.Comment: 6 pages, 1 figure, accepted in Research in Astronomy and Astrophysic

    Impacts of Fire Emissions and Transport Pathways on the Interannual Variation of CO In the Tropical Upper Troposphere

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    This study investigates the impacts of fire emission, convection, various climate conditions and transport pathways on the interannual variation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the tropical upper troposphere (UT), by evaluating the field correlation between these fields using multi-satellite observations and principle component analysis, and the transport pathway auto-identification method developed in our previous study. The rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) and singular value decomposition (SVD) methods are used to identify the dominant modes of CO interannual variation in the tropical UT and to study the coupled relationship between UT CO and its governing factors. Both REOF and SVD results confirm that Indonesia is the most significant land region that affects the interannual variation of CO in the tropical UT, and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant climate condition that affects the relationships between surface CO emission, convection and UT CO. In addition, our results also show that the impact of El Nino on the anomalous CO pattern in the tropical UT varies strongly, primarily due to different anomalous emission and convection patterns associated with different El Nino events. In contrast, the anomalous CO pattern in the tropical UT during La Nina period appears to be less variable among different events. Transport pathway analysis suggests that the average CO transported by the "local convection" pathway (Delta COlocal) accounts for the differences of UT CO between different ENSO phases over the tropical continents during biomass burning season. Delta COlocal is generally higher over Indonesia-Australia and lower over South America during El Nino years than during La Nina years. The other pathway ("advection within the lower troposphere followed by convective vertical transport") occurs more frequently over the west-central Pacific during El Nino years than during La Nina years, which may account for the UT CO differences over this region between different ENSO phases.NASA Aura Science Team (AST) program NNX09AD85GJackson School of Geosciences at the University of Texas at AustinJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASAGeological Science
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