165,888 research outputs found

    Nonlinear Young integrals via fractional calculus

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    For H\"older continuous functions W(t,x)W(t,x) and φt\varphi_t, we define nonlinear integral abW(dt,φt)\int_a^b W(dt, \varphi_t) via fractional calculus. This nonlinear integral arises naturally in the Feynman-Kac formula for stochastic heat equations with random coefficients. We also define iterated nonlinear integrals.Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1404.758

    Quantized Quasi-Two Dimensional Bose-Einstein Condensates with Spatially Modulated Nonlinearity

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    We investigate the localized nonlinear matter waves of the quasi-two dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates with spatially modulated nonlinearity in harmonic potential. It is shown that the whole Bose-Einstein condensates, similar to the linear harmonic oscillator, can have an arbitrary number of localized nonlinear matter waves with discrete energies, which are mathematically exact orthogonal solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Their novel properties are determined by the principle quantum number n and secondary quantum number l: the parity of the matter wave functions and the corresponding energy levels depend only on n, and the numbers of density packets for each quantum state depend on both n and l which describe the topological properties of the atom packets. We also give an experimental protocol to observe these novel phenomena in future experiments.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

    Light scattering and absorption properties of dust particles retrieved from satellite measurements

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    We use the radiative transfer model and chemistry transport model to improve our retrievals of dust optical properties from satellite measurements. The optical depth and absorbing optical depth of mineral dust can be obtained from our improved retrieval algorithm. The solar radiative forcing of dust aerosols has also been calculated using refined optical model and radiative transfer model

    Cosmological Information from Lensed CMB Power Spectra

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    Gravitational lensing distorts the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fields and encodes valuable information on distances and growth rates at intermediate redshifts into the lensed power spectra. The non-Gaussian bandpower covariance induced by the lenses is negligible to l=2000 for all but the B polarization field where it increases the net variance by up to a factor of 10 and favors an observing strategy with 3 times more area than if it were Gaussian. To quantify the cosmological information, we introduce two lensing observables, characterizing nearly all of the information, which simplify the study of non-Gaussian impact, parameter degeneracies, dark energy models, and complementarity with other cosmological probes. Information on the intermediate redshift parameters rapidly becomes limited by constraints on the cold dark matter density and initial amplitude of fluctuations as observations improve. Extraction of this information requires deep polarization measurements on only 5-10% of the sky, and can improve Planck lensing constraints by a factor of ~2-3 on any one of the parameters w_0, w_a, Omega_K, sum(m_nu) with the others fixed. Sensitivity to the curvature and neutrino mass are the highest due to the high redshift weight of CMB lensing but degeneracies between the parameters must be broken externally.Comment: 19 pages, 16 figures, submitted to PR

    Mapping functions and critical behavior of percolation on rectangular domains

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    The existence probability EpE_p and the percolation probability PP of the bond percolation on rectangular domains with different aspect ratios RR are studied via the mapping functions between systems with different aspect ratios. The superscaling behavior of EpE_p and PP for such systems with exponents aa and bb, respectively, found by Watanabe, Yukawa, Ito, and Hu in [Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{93}, 190601 (2004)] can be understood from the lower order approximation of the mapping functions fRf_R and gRg_R for EpE_p and PP, respectively; the exponents aa and bb can be obtained from numerically determined mapping functions fRf_R and gRg_R, respectively.Comment: 17 pages with 6 figure