53 research outputs found

    Widening of Protostellar Outflows: an Infrared Outflow Survey in Low Luminosity Objects

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    We present an outflow survey toward 20 Low Luminosity Objects (LLOs), namely protostars with an internal luminosity lower than 0.2 Lsun. Although a number of studies have reported the properties of individual LLOs, the reasons for their low luminosity remain uncertain. To answer this question, we need to know the evolutionary status of LLOs. Protostellar outflows are found to widen as their parent cores evolve, and therefore, the outflow opening angle could be used as an evolutionary indicator. The infrared scattered light escapes out through the outflow cavity and highlights the cavity wall, giving us the opportunity to measure the outflow opening angle. Using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we detected outflows toward eight LLOs out of 20 at Ks band, and based on archival Spitzer IRAC1 images, we added four outflow-driving sources from the remaining 12 sources. By fitting these images with radiative transfer models, we derive the outflow opening angles and inclination angles. To study the widening of outflow cavities, we compare our sample with the young stellar objects from Arce & Sargent 2006 and Velusamy et al. 2014 in the plot of opening angle versus bolometric temperature taken as an evolutionary indicator.Our LLO targets match well the trend of increasing opening angle with bolometric temperature reported by Arce & Sargent and are broadly consistent with that reported by Velusamy et al., suggesting that the opening angle could be a good evolutionary indicator for LLOs. Accordingly, we conclude that at least 40% of the outflow-driving LLOs in our sample are young Class 0 objects.Comment: Accepted for publication in AJ, 13 pages, 9 figure

    Properties of the Molecular Cores of Low Luminosity Objects

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    We present a survey toward 16 Low Luminosity Objects (LLOs with an internal luminosity, Lint, lower than 0.2 Lsun) with N2H+ (1-0), N2H+ (3-2), N2D+ (3-2), HCO+ (3-2) and HCN (3-2) using the Arizona Radio Observatory Kitt Peak 12m Telescope and Submillimeter Telescope. Our goal is to probe the nature of these faint protostars which are believed to be either very low mass or extremely young protostars. We find that the N2D+/N2H+ column density ratios of LLOs are similar to those of typical starless cores and Class 0 objects. The N2D+/N2H+ column density ratios are relatively high (> 0.05) for LLOs with kinetic temperatures less than 10 K in our sample. The distribution of N2H+ (1-0) line widths spreads between that of starless cores and young Class 0 objects. If we use the line width as a dynamic evolutionary indicator, LLOs are likely young Class 0 protostellar sources. We further use the optically thick tracers, HCO+ (3-2) and HCN (3-2), to probe the infall signatures of our targets. We derive the asymmetry parameters from both lines and estimate the infall velocities by fitting the HCO+ (3-2) spectra with two-layer models. As a result, we identify eight infall candidates based on the infall velocities and seven candidates have infall signatures supported by asymmetry parameters from at least one of HCO+ (3-2) and HCN (3-2).Comment: 15 pages, 8 figures, accepted to Ap

    ALMA observations of the protostellar disk around the VeLLO IRAS 16253-2429

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    We present ALMA long-baseline observations toward the Class 0 protostar IRAS 16253-2429 (hereafter IRAS 16253) with a resolution down to 0.12" (~15 au). The 1.3 mm dust continuum emission has a deconvolved Gaussian size of 0.16" x 0. 07" (20 au x 8.8 au), likely tracing an inclined dusty disk. Interestingly, the position of the 1.38 mm emission is offset from that of the 0.87 mm emission along the disk minor axis. Such an offset may come from a torus-like disk with very different optical depths between these two wavelengths. Furthermore, through CO (2 - 1) and C18O (2 - 1) observations, we study rotation and infall motions in this disk-envelope system and infer the presence of a Keplerian disk with a radius of 8 - 32 au. This result suggests that the disk could have formed by directly evolving from a first core, because IRAS16253 is too young to gradually grow a disk to such a size considering the low rotation rate of its envelope. In addition, we find a quadruple pattern in the CO emission at low velocity, which may originate from CO freeze out at the disk/envelope midplane. This suggests that the "cold disk" may appear in the early stage, implying a chemical evolution for the disk around this proto-brown dwarf (or very low-mass protostar) different from that of low-mass stars.Comment: accepted for publication in ApJ, 11 pages, 6 figure

    Predicting microRNA precursors with a generalized Gaussian components based density estimation algorithm

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules, which play an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. There have been many efforts to discover miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) over the years. Recently, <it>ab initio </it>approaches have attracted more attention because they do not depend on homology information and provide broader applications than comparative approaches. Kernel based classifiers such as support vector machine (SVM) are extensively adopted in these <it>ab initio </it>approaches due to the prediction performance they achieved. On the other hand, logic based classifiers such as decision tree, of which the constructed model is interpretable, have attracted less attention.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>This article reports the design of a predictor of pre-miRNAs with a novel kernel based classifier named the generalized Gaussian density estimator (G<sup>2</sup>DE) based classifier. The G<sup>2</sup>DE is a kernel based algorithm designed to provide interpretability by utilizing a few but representative kernels for constructing the classification model. The performance of the proposed predictor has been evaluated with 692 human pre-miRNAs and has been compared with two kernel based and two logic based classifiers. The experimental results show that the proposed predictor is capable of achieving prediction performance comparable to those delivered by the prevailing kernel based classification algorithms, while providing the user with an overall picture of the distribution of the data set.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Software predictors that identify pre-miRNAs in genomic sequences have been exploited by biologists to facilitate molecular biology research in recent years. The G<sup>2</sup>DE employed in this study can deliver prediction accuracy comparable with the state-of-the-art kernel based machine learning algorithms. Furthermore, biologists can obtain valuable insights about the different characteristics of the sequences of pre-miRNAs with the models generated by the G<sup>2</sup>DE based predictor.</p

    V2PSense: Enabling Cellular-based V2P Collision Warning Service Through Mobile Sensing

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    The C-V2X (Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything) technology is developing in full swing. One of its mainstream services can be the Vehicle-to-Pedestrian (V2P) service. It can protect pedestrians who are mostly vulnerable on the road. In this work, we seek to enable a V2P service that can identify which pedestrians may be nearby a dangerous driving event and then notify them of warning messages. To enable this V2P service, there are two major challenges. First, a low-latency V2P message transport is required for this infrastructure-based service. Second, the pedestrian’s smartphone requires an energy-efficient outdoor positioning method instead of power-hungry GPS due to its limited battery life. We thus propose a novel solution, V2PSense, which trades off positioning precision for energy savings while achieving low-latency message transport with LTE high-priority bearers. It does a coarse-grained positioning by leveraging intermittent GPS information and mobile sensing data, which includes step count from the pedometer and cellular signal strength changes. Though the V2PSense’s positioning is not as precise as the GPS, it can still ensure that all the pedestrians nearby dangerous spots can be notified. Our results show that it can achieve the average precision ratio 92.6% for estimating where the pedestrian is while saving 20.8% energy, compared with the GPS always-on case.This work was partially supported by the Ministry of Science and Tech-nology, Taiwan, under grant numbers 106-2622-8-009-017 and 106-2218-E-009-018, and by the H2020 collaborative Europe/Taiwan research project 5G-CORAL (grant num. 761586

    Dust masses of young disks: constraining the initial solid reservoir for planet formation

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    In recent years evidence has been building that planet formation starts early, in the first \sim 0.5 Myr. Studying the dust masses available in young disks enables understanding the origin of planetary systems since mature disks are lacking the solid material necessary to reproduce the observed exoplanetary systems, especially the massive ones. We aim to determine if disks in the embedded stage of star formation contain enough dust to explain the solid content of the most massive exoplanets. We use Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 6 observations of embedded disks in the Perseus star-forming region together with Very Large Array (VLA) Ka-band (9 mm) data to provide a robust estimate of dust disk masses from the flux densities. Using the DIANA opacity model including large grains, with a dust opacity value of κ9 mm\kappa_{\rm 9\ mm} = 0.28 cm2^{2} g1^{-1}, the median dust masses of the embedded disks in Perseus are 158 M_\oplus for Class 0 and 52 M_\oplus for Class I from the VLA fluxes. The lower limits on the median masses from ALMA fluxes are 47 M_\oplus and 12 M_\oplus for Class 0 and Class I, respectively, obtained using the maximum dust opacity value κ1.3mm\kappa_{\rm 1.3mm} = 2.3 cm2^{2} g1^{-1}. The dust masses of young Class 0 and I disks are larger by at least a factor of 10 and 3, respectively, compared with dust masses inferred for Class II disks in Lupus and other regions. The dust masses of Class 0 and I disks in Perseus derived from the VLA data are high enough to produce the observed exoplanet systems with efficiencies acceptable by planet formation models: the solid content in observed giant exoplanets can be explained if planet formation starts in Class 0 phase with an efficiency of \sim 15%. Higher efficiency of \sim 30% is necessary if the planet formation is set to start in Class I disks.Comment: 16 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    Chronology of Episodic Accretion in Protostars—An ALMA Survey of the CO and H2O Snowlines

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    Episodic accretion has been used to explain the wide range of protostellar luminosities, but its origin and influence on the star-forming process are not yet fully understood. We present an ALMA survey of N2H+ (1−0) and HCO+ (3−2) toward 39 Class 0 and Class I sources in the Perseus molecular cloud. N2H+ and HCO+ are destroyed via gas-phase reactions with CO and H2O, respectively, thus tracing the CO and H2O snowline locations. A snowline location at a much larger radius than that expected from the current luminosity suggests that an accretion burst has occurred in the past that has shifted the snowline outward. We identified 18/18 Class 0 and 9/10 Class I post-burst sources from N2H+ and 7/17 Class 0 and 1/8 Class I post-burst sources from HCO+. The accretion luminosities during the past bursts are found to be ~10–100 L ⊙. This result can be interpreted as either evolution of burst frequency or disk evolution. In the former case, assuming that refreeze-out timescales are 1000 yr for H2O and 10,000 yr for CO, we found that the intervals between bursts increase from 2400 yr in the Class 0 stage to 8000 yr in the Class I stage. This decrease in the burst frequency may reflect that fragmentation is more likely to occur at an earlier evolutionary stage when the young stellar object is more prone to instability

    Probing Episodic Accretion in Very Low Luminosity Objects

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    Episodic accretion has been proposed as a solution to the long-standing luminosity problem in star formation; however, the process remains poorly understood. We present observations of line emission from N2H+ and CO isotopologues using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the envelopes of eight very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs). In five of the sources the spatial distribution of emission from N2H+ and CO isotopologues shows a clear anticorrelation. It is proposed that this is tracing the CO snow line in the envelopes: N2H+ emission is depleted toward the center of these sources, in contrast to the CO isotopologue emission, which exhibits a peak. The positions of the CO snow lines traced by the N2H+ emission are located at much larger radii than those calculated using the current luminosities of the central sources. This implies that these five sources have experienced a recent accretion burst because the CO snow line would have been pushed outward during the burst because of the increased luminosity of the central star. The N2H+ and CO isotopologue emission from DCE161, one of the other three sources, is most likely tracing a transition disk at a later evolutionary stage. Excluding DCE161, five out of seven sources (i.e., ~70%) show signatures of a recent accretion burst. This fraction is larger than that of the Class 0/I sources studied by Jørgensen et al. and Frimann et al., suggesting that the interval between accretion episodes in VeLLOs is shorter than that in Class 0/I sources
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