2,700 research outputs found

    Investigation of the Arc-Anode Attachment Area by Utilizing a High-Speed Camera

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    The arc-anode attachment in the DC plasma arc influences power distribution in the plasma, a lifespan of anode and flow structure of plasma jet. A movement of the attachment and the surrounding plasma was directly observed by using a high-speed camera (max. 1,080,000‚ÄČfps). The observations were compared with cathode-anode voltage measurements (sample rate 80‚ÄČMHz). We have directly measured the average velocity of the attachments and hydrodynamic waves above them, as well as the characteristic dwell times and dwell frequencies of the attachments

    Diagnostics of Hybrid Water/Argon Thermal Plasma Jet with Water, Ethanol and Their Mixture Injection to Plasma

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    A plasma torch with the water/argon stabilization of an arc is characterized by extremely hot and high velocity plasma together with the relatively low flow rate of plasma, therefore, the torch might be properly used for plasma suspension spraying. Enthalpy probe and emission spectroscopy measurements were carried out at constant arc power with the combination of the injection of water, ethanol or their mixture to the plasma jet to diagnose the changes in temperature, heat flux and other characteristics

    All Sky Camera for the CTA Atmospheric Calibration work package

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    The All Sky Camera (ASC) is a passive non-invasive imaging system for rapid night sky atmosphere monitoring. By design, the operation of the ASC will not affect the measurement procedure of the CTA observatory, for which we discuss its application in this report. The data collected should enable improved productivity and increased measurement time for the CTA observatory. The goal of ASC is to identify cloud position, atmosphere attenuation and time evolution of the sky condition, working within the CTA Central Calibration Facilities (CCF) group. Clouds and atmosphere monitoring may allow near-future prediction of the night-sky quality, helping scheduling. Also, in the case of partly cloudy night sky the cameras will identify the uncovered regions of the sky during the operation time, and define potential observable sources that can be measured. By doing so, a higher productivity of the CTA observatory measurements may be possible

    Detection of ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers with a single-pixel fluorescence telescope

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    We present a concept for large-area, low-cost detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with a Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Telescopes (FAST), addressing the requirements for the next generation of UHECR experiments. In the FAST design, a large field of view is covered by a few pixels at the focal plane of a mirror or Fresnel lens. We report first results of a FAST prototype installed at the Telescope Array site, consisting of a single 200 mm photomultiplier tube at the focal plane of a 1 m2^2 Fresnel lens system taken from the prototype of the JEM-EUSO experiment. The FAST prototype took data for 19 nights, demonstrating remarkable operational stability. We detected laser shots at distances of several kilometres as well as 16 highly significant UHECR shower candidates.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astroparticle Physic

    Deposition of Fluorocarbon Plasma Polymer Nanoparticles and their Basic Properties

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    Fluorocarbon plasma polymer nanoparticles have been fabricated using gas aggregation cluster source (GAS) equipped with a planar magnetron with PTFE target. A beam of nanoparticles 20 ‚Äď 200 nm in diameter was generated. Fluorocarbon nanoparticle films have shown very good water repellent properties. Films immersed in ethanol for two hours exhibited excellent stability that was also good in case of water. Measurements using a deflection system showed the presence of both neutral and charged nanoparticles

    Magnetoelastic effects and random magnetic anisotropy in highly strained ultrathin Ni nanowires epitaxied in a SrTiO3 matrix

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    International audienceWe analyze the magnetic anisotropy of Ni nanowires with diameters smaller than 5 nm. The nanowires are vertically epitaxied in a SrTiO 3 (001) matrix which generates huge tensile strains up to 3.6% along the nanowire axis. This leads to an unusual anisotropy, characterized by an easy magnetization plane perpendicular to the nanowire axis. Hysteresis cycles M(H) unveil an overall in-plane isotropy, while an opening of the M(H) cycles and thermal activation measurements indicate the presence of local energy barriers inside the nanowires. Surprisingly, the coercive field H c (T) decays exponentially with increasing temperature, for both the easy plane and the hard axis. Based on these findings, we provide an analysis of magnetoelastic effects in the nanowires. By considering global averaging over the anisotropy distribution and local averaging according to the Random Magnetic Anisotropy model, we find that the global anisotropy, with its hard axis and isotropic easy plane, is related to the mean strain, while coercivity arises from local strain variations. We evidence that a thermally activated anisotropy softening occurs in the nanowires, in addition to Sharrock's law of thermal reduction of coercivity. Possible mechanisms responsible for this thermal softening of anisotropy are proposed and discussed. Our study eventually allows to identify two major competing effects at play in the present system: an increasing magnetic anisotropy with increasing strain and a reduction of the anisotropy with increasing local strain fluctuations

    Electric field control of exchange bias in multiferroic epitaxial heterostructures

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    The magnetic exchange bias between epitaxial thin films of the multiferroic (antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric) hexagonal YMnO3 oxide and a soft ferromagnetic (FM) layer is used to couple the magnetic response of the ferromagnetic layer to the magnetic state of the antiferromagnetic one. We will show that biasing the ferroelectric YMnO3 layer by an appropriate electric field allows modifying and controlling the magnetic exchange bias and subsequently the magnetotransport properties of the FM layer. This finding may contribute to pave the way towards a new generation of electric-field controlled spintronics devices.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figures, submitte

    Electric field effects on magnetotransport properties of multiferroic Py/YMnO3/Pt heterostructures

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    We report on the exchange bias between antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric hexagonal YMnO3 epitaxial thin films sandwiched between a metallic electrode (Pt) and a soft ferromagnetic layer (Py). Anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements are performed to monitor the presence of an exchange bias field. When the heteroestructure is biased by an electric field, it turns out that the exchange bias field is suppressed. We discuss the dependence of the observed effect on the amplitude and polarity of the electric field. Particular attention is devoted to the role of current leakage across the ferroelectric layer.Comment: Accepted for publication in Philosophical Magazine Letters (Special issue on multiferroics

    Impact of the oxide scale on spray cooling intensity

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    Paper presented to the 10th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Florida, 14-16 July 2014.Heat treatment of steel is attended by oxide scales growth with various physical properties. The most common and most dominant impact of the oxide scale layers is on the surface quality and mechanical properties of steel. This paper is focused on study of influence of the oxide scale on cooling intensity. Spray cooling is a typical technique used in heat treatment and other metallurgical processes where controlled temperature regimes are required. Cooling intensity is primarily affected by spray parameters as pressure and coolant impingement density. It is not frequently reported but even thin layers of oxides can significantly modify the cooling intensity. This effect is dominant in the cooling of steel surfaces at high surface temperatures. Study of the influence of the oxide scale layers on cooling intensity was carried out by experimental measurements and numerical analysis. Experimental measurements compare the cooling of scale-free surfaces and oxidized surfaces. Experimental investigations show a difference in the cooling intensity. Numerical analyses were prepared to simulate cooling of the samples with different oxide scale layers and different thermal conductivity of scales. Even a scale layer of several microns can significantly modify the cooling intensity. A low thermal conductivity of the oxides can make the cooling more intensive. The paper provides experimental evidence of this fact and numerical study of the oxide scale layer thickness and thermal conductivity on the influence on the spray cooling with boiling. The Leidenfrost phenomenon and change in surface temperature provides key to the explanation why the hot surface covered by the oxides is sometimes cooled more intensively than the clean surface.cf201

    A novel method for the absolute fluorescence yield measurement by AIRFLY

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    One of the goals of the AIRFLY (AIR FLuorescence Yield) experiment is to measure the absolute fluorescence yield induced by electrons in air to better than 10% precision. We introduce a new technique for measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of the 337 nm line that has the advantage of reducing the systematic uncertainty due to the detector calibration. The principle is to compare the measured fluorescence yield to a well known process - the Cerenkov emission. Preliminary measurements taken in the BFT (Beam Test Facility) in Frascati, Italy with 350 MeV electrons are presented. Beam tests in the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA with 14 MeV electrons have also shown that this technique can be applied at lower energies.Comment: presented at the 5th Fluorescence Workshop, El Escorial - Madrid, Spain, 16 - 20 September 200
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