3,472 research outputs found

    Interpretations of the Accelerating Universe

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    It is generally argued that the present cosmological observations support the accelerating models of the universe, as driven by the cosmological constant or `dark energy'. We argue here that an alternative model of the universe is possible which explains the current observations of the universe. We demonstrate this with a reinterpretation of the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, since this was the test that gave a spurt to the current trend in favour of the cosmological constant.Comment: 12 pages including 2 figures, minor revision, references added, a paragraph on the interpretation of the CMB anisotropy in the QSSC added in conclusion, general results unchanged. To appear in the October 2002 issue of the "Publications of the Astronmical Society of the Pacific

    A Classical Treatment of Island Cosmology

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    Computing the perturbation spectrum in the recently proposed Island Cosmology remains an open problem. In this paper we present a classical computation of the perturbations generated in this scenario by assuming that the NEC-violating field behaves as a classical phantom field. Using an exactly-solvable potential, we show that the model generates a scale-invariant spectrum of scalar perturbations, as well as a scale-invariant spectrum of gravitational waves. The scalar perturbations can have sufficient amplitude to seed cosmological structure, while the gravitational waves have a vastly diminished amplitude.Comment: 8 pages, 1 figur

    Is the present expansion of the universe really accelerating?

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    The current observations are usually explained by an accelerating expansion of the present universe. However, with the present quality of the supernovae Ia data, the allowed parameter space is wide enough to accommodate the decelerating models as well. This is shown by considering a particular example of the dark energy equation-of-state wϕpϕ/ρϕ=1/3w_\phi\equiv p_\phi/\rho_\phi=-1/3, which is equivalent to modifying the \emph{geometrical curvature} index kk of the standard cosmology by shifting it to (kα)(k-\alpha) where α\alpha is a constant. The resulting decelerating model is consistent with the recent CMB observations made by WMAP, as well as, with the high redshift supernovae Ia data including SN 1997ff at z=1.755z= 1.755. It is also consistent with the newly discovered supernovae SN 2002dc at z=0.475z=0.475 and SN 2002dd at z=0.95z=0.95 which have a general tendency to improve the fit.Comment: Replaced with the accepted version to appear in MNRA

    On the nature of the quasi-stellar objects

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    Quasi-stellar objects at cosmological distances or local objects - optical properties of quasi- stellar objects and radio emission from star

    A Radical Departure from the ''steady State'' Concept in Cosmology

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    Radical departure from steady state theory in cosmolog

    On the formation of elliptical galaxies

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    Formation of elliptical galaxie

    Distances to Cepheid Open Clusters Via Optical and K-Band Imaging

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    We investigate the reddening and Main Sequence fitted distances to eleven young, Galactic open clusters that contain Cepheids. Each cluster contains or is associated with at least one Cepheid variable star. Reddening to the clusters is estimated using the U-B:B-V colours of the OB stars and the distance modulus to the cluster is estimated via B-V:V and V-K:V colour-magnitude diagrams. By main-sequence fitting we proceed to calibrate the Cepheid P-L relation and find M_V=-2.81xlogP-1.33 +/-0.32 and M_K=-3.44xlogP-2.20 +/-0.29 and a distance modulus to the LMC of 18.55+/-0.32 in the V-band and 18.47+/-0.29 in the K-band giving an overall distance modulus to the LMC of 18.51+/-0.3. In the case of two important clusters we find that the U-B:B-V diagram in these clusters is not well fitted by the standard Main Sequence line. In one case, NGC7790, we find that the F stars show a UV excess which if caused by metallicity would imply Fe/H ~ -1.5; this is anomalously low compared to what is expected for young open clusters. In a second case, NGC6664, the U-B:B-V diagram shows too red U-B colours for the F stars which in this case would imply a higher than solar metallicity. If these effects are due to metallicity then it would imply that the Cepheid PL(V) and PL(K) zeropoints depend on metallicity according to delta(M)/delta(Fe/H) ~0.66 in the sense that lower metallicity Cepheids are intrinsically fainter. Medium-high resolution spectroscopy for the main-sequence F stars in these two clusters is needed to determine if metallicity really is the cause or whether some other explanation applies.Comment: Submitted to MNRAS. Due to large size of paper, please see http://star-www.dur.ac.uk:80/~fhoyle/papers.html for a version with the figures correctly inserte

    Inhomogeneities in the Microwave Background Radiation interpreted within the framework of the Quasi-Steady State Cosmology

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    We calculate the expected angular power spectrum of the temperature fluctuations in the microwave background radiation (MBR) generated in the quasi-steady state cosmology (QSSC). The paper begins with a brief description of how the background is produced and thermalized in the QSSC. We then discuss within the framework of a simple model, the likely sources of fluctuations in the background due to astrophysical and cosmological causes. Power spectrum peaks at l610l \approx 6-10, 180-220 and 600-900 are shown to be related in this cosmology respectively to curvature effects at the last minimum of the scale factor, clusters and groups of galaxies. The effect of clusters is shown to be related to their distribution in space as indicated by a toy model of structure formation in the QSSC. We derive and parameterize the angular power spectrum using six parameters related to the sources of temperature fluctuations at three characteristic scales. We are able to obtain a satisfactory fit to the observational band power estimates of MBR temperature fluctuation spectrum. Moreover, the values of `best fit' parameters are consistent with the range of expected values.Comment: 27 pages, including 5 figures; to appear in Astrophys.

    The cosmological BCS mechanism and the Big Bang Singularity

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    We provide a novel mechanism that resolves the Big Bang Singularity present in FRW space-times without the need for ghost fields. Building on the fact that a four-fermion interaction arises in General Relativity when fermions are covariantly coupled, we show that at early times the decrease in scale factor enhances the correlation between pairs of fermions. This enhancement leads to a BCS-like condensation of the fermions and opens a gap dynamically driving the Hubble parameter HH to zero and results in a non-singular bounce, at least in some special cases.Comment: replaced to match the journal versio
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