2,110 research outputs found

    Modeling language learning using specialized Elo ratings

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    Automatic assessment of the proficiency levels of the learner is a critical part of Intelligent Tutoring Systems. We present methods for assessment in the context of language learning. We use a specialized Elo formula used in conjunction with educational data mining. We simultaneously obtain ratings for the proficiency of the learners and for the difficulty of the linguistic concepts that the learners are trying to master. From the same data we also learn a graph structure representing a domain model capturing the relations among the concepts. This application of Elo provides ratings for learners and concepts which correlate well with subjective proficiency levels of the learners and difficulty levels of the concepts

    A synthesis of the environmental response of the North and South Atlantic Sub-Tropical Gyres during two decades of AMT

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via the DOI in this record.Anthropogenically-induced global warming is expected to decrease primary productivity in the subtropical oceans by strengthening stratification of the water column and reducing the flux of nutrients from deep-waters to the sunlit surface layers. Identification of such changes is hindered by a paucity of long-term, spatially-resolved, biological time-series data at the basin scale. This paper exploits Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) data on physical and biogeochemical properties (1995–2014) in synergy with a wide range of remote-sensing (RS) observations from ocean colour, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) and altimetry (surface currents), combined with different modelling approaches (both empirical and a coupled 1-D Ecosystem model), to produce a synthesis of the seasonal functioning of the North and South Atlantic Sub-Tropical Gyres (STGs), and assess their response to longer-term changes in climate. We explore definitive characteristics of the STGs using data of physical (SST, SSS and peripheral current systems) and biogeochemical variables (chlorophyll and nitrate), with inherent criteria (permanent thermal stratification and oligotrophy), and define the gyre boundary from a sharp gradient in these physical and biogeochemical properties. From RS data, the seasonal cycles for the period 1998–2012 show significant relationships between physical properties (SST and PAR) and gyre area. In contrast to expectations, the surface layer chlorophyll concentration from RS data (CHL) shows an upward trend for the mean values in both subtropical gyres. Furthermore, trends in physical properties (SST, PAR, gyre area) differ between the North and South STGs, suggesting the processes responsible for an upward trend in CHL may vary between gyres. There are significant anomalies in CHL and SST that are associated with El Niño events. These conclusions are drawn cautiously considering the short length of the time-series (1998–2012), emphasising the need to sustain spatially-extensive surveys such as AMT and integrate such observations with models, autonomous observations and RS data, to help address fundamental questions about how our planet is responding to climate change. A small number of dedicated AMT cruises in the keystone months of January and July would complement our understanding of seasonal cycles in the STGs.Natural Environment Research Council National CapabilityUK National Centre for Earth Observatio

    P2X receptor signaling inhibits BDNF-mediated spiral ganglion neuron development in the neonatal rat cochlea.

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    Type I and type II spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) innervate the inner and outer hair cells of the cochlea, respectively. This neural system is established by reorganization of promiscuous innervation of the hair cells, immediately before hearing is established. The mechanism for this synaptic reorganization is unresolved but probably includes regulation of trophic support between the hair cells and the neurons. We provide evidence that P2X receptors (ATP-gated ion channels) contribute such a mechanism in the neonatal rat cochlea. Single-cell quantitative RT-PCR identified the differential expression of two P2X receptor subunits, splice variant P2X(2)(-3) and P2X(3), in a 1:2 transcript ratio. Downregulation of this P2X(2-3/3) receptor coincided with maturation of the SGN innervation of the hair cells. When the P2X(2-3) and P2X(3) subunits were co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the resultant P2X receptor properties corresponded to the SGN phenotype. This included enhanced sensitivity to ATP and extended agonist action. In P4 spiral ganglion explants, activation of the P2X receptor signaling pathway by ATPgammaS or alpha,betaMeATP inhibited BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth and branching. These findings indicate that P2X receptor signaling provides a mechanism for inhibiting neurotrophin support of SGN neurites when synaptic reorganization is occurring in the cochlea

    Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

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    Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods: We have genotyped rs744154 in 9408 BRCA1 and 5632 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and assessed its association with breast cancer risk using a retrospective weighted cohort approach. Results: We found no evidence of association with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 (per-allele HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93–1.04, P=0.5) or BRCA2 (per-allele HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89–1.06, P=0.5) mutation carriers. Conclusion: This SNP is not a significant modifier of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers, though weak associations cannot be ruled out. A Osorio1, R L Milne2, G Pita3, P Peterlongo4,5, T Heikkinen6, J Simard7, G Chenevix-Trench8, A B Spurdle8, J Beesley8, X Chen8, S Healey8, KConFab9, S L Neuhausen10, Y C Ding10, F J Couch11,12, X Wang11, N Lindor13, S Manoukian4, M Barile14, A Viel15, L Tizzoni5,16, C I Szabo17, L Foretova18, M Zikan19, K Claes20, M H Greene21, P Mai21, G Rennert22, F Lejbkowicz22, O Barnett-Griness22, I L Andrulis23,24, H Ozcelik24, N Weerasooriya23, OCGN23, A-M Gerdes25, M Thomassen25, D G Cruger26, M A Caligo27, E Friedman28,29, B Kaufman28,29, Y Laitman28, S Cohen28, T Kontorovich28, R Gershoni-Baruch30, E Dagan31,32, H Jernström33, M S Askmalm34, B Arver35, B Malmer36, SWE-BRCA37, S M Domchek38, K L Nathanson38, J Brunet39, T Ramón y Cajal40, D Yannoukakos41, U Hamann42, HEBON37, F B L Hogervorst43, S Verhoef43, EB Gómez García44,45, J T Wijnen46,47, A van den Ouweland48, EMBRACE37, D F Easton49, S Peock49, M Cook49, C T Oliver49, D Frost49, C Luccarini50, D G Evans51, F Lalloo51, R Eeles52, G Pichert53, J Cook54, S Hodgson55, P J Morrison56, F Douglas57, A K Godwin58, GEMO59,60,61, O M Sinilnikova59,60, L Barjhoux59,60, D Stoppa-Lyonnet61, V Moncoutier61, S Giraud59, C Cassini62,63, L Olivier-Faivre62,63, F Révillion64, J-P Peyrat64, D Muller65, J-P Fricker65, H T Lynch66, E M John67, S Buys68, M Daly69, J L Hopper70, M B Terry71, A Miron72, Y Yassin72, D Goldgar73, Breast Cancer Family Registry37, C F Singer74, D Gschwantler-Kaulich74, G Pfeiler74, A-C Spiess74, Thomas v O Hansen75, O T Johannsson76, T Kirchhoff77, K Offit77, K Kosarin77, M Piedmonte78, G C Rodriguez79, K Wakeley80, J F Boggess81, J Basil82, P E Schwartz83, S V Blank84, A E Toland85, M Montagna86, C Casella87, E N Imyanitov88, A Allavena89, R K Schmutzler90, B Versmold90, C Engel91, A Meindl92, N Ditsch93, N Arnold94, D Niederacher95, H Deißler96, B Fiebig97, R Varon-Mateeva98, D Schaefer99, U G Froster100, T Caldes101, M de la Hoya101, L McGuffog49, A C Antoniou49, H Nevanlinna6, P Radice4,5 and J Benítez1,3 on behalf of CIMB

    Astrobiological Complexity with Probabilistic Cellular Automata

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    Search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous input parameters' space. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding actual empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and near-future space missions, we demonstrate how numerical results could offer a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches.Comment: 37 pages, 11 figures, 2 tables; added journal reference belo

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    This paper presents measurements of the W+μ+νW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and WμνW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13

    Search for chargino-neutralino production with mass splittings near the electroweak scale in three-lepton final states in √s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector