54 research outputs found

    Physical activity and academic achievement in children: A historical perspective

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    AbstractAs the focus on academic achievement has increased, physical activity (PA) opportunities in schools have decreased in the United States. In an attempt to discover how the decline in PA may affect academic achievement, researchers have been studying the effects of PA on cognition and academic achievement in children for more than 50 years. This review takes a historical perspective on the science of PA and academic achievement prior to and during the past 5 years. A total of 125 published articles were included and reviewed. Fifty-three of these articles were published in the past 5 years. In recent years, the overall quality of the studies has increased, but the results continue to be inconsistent. Many use cross-sectional designs and the methods vary substantially. The majority of conclusions show a positive effect of PA on constructs related to academic achievement. Future studies should use strong study designs to examine the types and doses of PA needed to produce improvements in academic achievement

    Physical activity behaviours of highly active preschoolers

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    Background: Understanding the physical activity behaviour of young children who are highly active mayprovide important guidance for promoting physical activity in preschools.Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the movement characteristics of high-active (HA)children during attendance at preschools.Methods: Children in 20 preschools (n = 231) wore accelerometers and were classified into tertiles ofmoderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Children's movement characteristics were observed using the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children – Preschool Version. Mixed-model analyses compared movement types between HA children and lower-active (LA) children during the total school day.Results: HA (n = 77) children were observed to be more active than LA children (n = 154) indoors(P < 0.001), but no differences were observed outdoors. HA children were more frequently observed running, crawling, climbing, jumping, skipping, swinging and throwing across the total school day than LA children. Outdoors, HA children participated in more swinging and throwing and less jumping or skipping than LA children. Indoors, HA children spent more time pulling, pushing and running, and less time walking than LA children.Conclusions: HA children have unique activity patterns. Further interventions to increase physical activity of all preschoolers should increase the time spent outside and include varied activity types throughout the entire school day

    Alcohol Consumption and Risk of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Men

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    This study examined the association between consumption of alcoholic beverages and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a cohort of men (n = 31,367). In the Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, year of examination, body mass index (BMI), smoking, family history of CVD, and aerobic fitness, there were no significant differences in risk of all-cause mortality across alcohol intake groups. Risk of CVD mortality was reduced 29% in quartile 1 (HR = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53, 0.95) and 25% in quartile 2 (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98). The amount of alcohol consumed to achieve this risk reduction was <6 drinks/week; less than the amount currently recommended. The addition of other potential confounders and effect modifiers including blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, and psychological variables did not affect the magnitude of association. Future research is needed to validate the current public health recommendations for alcohol consumption

    The impact of Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program on physical activity, sedentary time and fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among overweight and obese adolescents: A waitlist controlled trial

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    Background: To determine the effects of participation in Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP), a community-based, family-centered behavioural intervention, on the physical activity, sedentary time, and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents. Methods: In this waitlist controlled clinical trial in Western Australia, adolescents (n = 69, 71% female, mean age 14.1 (SD 1.6) years) and parents completed an 8-week intervention followed by 12 months of telephone and text message support. Assessments were completed at baseline, before beginning the intervention, immediately following the intervention, and at 3-, 6-, and 12- months follow-up. The primary outcomes were physical activity and sedentary time assessed by accelerometers and servings of fruit, vegetables and junk food assessed by 3-day food records. Results: During the intensive 8-week intervention sedentary time decreased by −5.1 min/day/month (95% CI: −11.0, 0.8) which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .014). Moderate physical activity increased by 1.8 min/day/month (95% CI: −0.04, 3.6) during the intervention period, which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .041). Fruit consumption increased during the intervention period (monthly incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.56) and junk food consumption decreased (monthly IRR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.94) and these changes were different to those seen during the waitlist period (p = .004 and p = .020 respectively). Conclusions: Participating in CAFAP appeared to have a positive influence on the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents and many of these changes were maintained for one year following the intensive intervention. Trial Registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001187932

    "From the moment i wake up i will use it?every day, very hour": A qualitative study on the patterns of adolescents' mobile touch screen device use from adolescent and parent perspectives

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    Background: The use of mobile touch screen devices, e.g. smartphones and tablet computers, has become increasingly prevalent among adolescents. However, little is known about how adolescents use these devices and potential influences on their use. Hence, this qualitative study explored adolescents' perceptions on their patterns of use and factors influencing use, and perceptions and concerns from parents. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 36; 11 to 18 years) and their parents/caregivers (n = 28) in Singapore recruited to represent males and females across a range of ages from different socioeconomic groups. Prompts covered weekday and weekend use patterns, types of activities, perspectives on amount of use, parental control measures and concerns. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and thematic analysis was carried out. Results: Smartphone was the most common mobile device owned and used by many of the adolescents, while only some used a tablet. Many adolescents and their parents felt that adolescents' MTSD use was high, frequent and ubiquitous, with frequent checking of device and multitasking during use. Reported influences of use included functional, personal and external influences. Some of the influences were irresistibility of mobile devices, lack of self-control, entertainment or relaxation value, and high use by peers, family and for schoolwork that contributed to high use, or school/parental control measures and lack of internet availability that limited use. Most adolescents were generally unconcerned about their use and perceived their usage as appropriate, while most parents expressed several concerns about their adolescents' use and perceived their usage as excessive. Conclusions: This study has provided rich insights into the patterns and influences of contemporary mobile device use by adolescents. Mobile device use has become an integral part of adolescents' daily routines, and was affected by several functional, personal and external influences which either facilitated or limited their use. There also seemed to be a strong inclination for adolescents to frequently check and use their mobile devices. There is an urgent need to understand the implications of these common adolescent behaviours to inform advice for wise mobile device use by adolescents

    Objectively measured patterns of sedentary time and physical activity in young adults of the Raine study cohort

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    Background: To provide a detailed description of young adults' sedentary time and physical activity. Methods: 384 young women and 389 young men aged 22.1±0.6 years, all participants in the 22 year old follow-up of the Raine Study pregnancy cohort, wore Actigraph GT3X+ monitors on the hip for 24 h/day over a one-week period for at least one 'valid' day (=10 h of waking wear time). Each minute epoch was classified as sedentary, light, moderate or vigorous intensity using 100 count and Freedson cut-points. Mixed models assessed hourly and daily variation; t-tests assessed gender differences. Results: The average (mean±SD) waking wear time was 15.0±1.6 h/day, of which 61.4±10.1 % was spent sedentary, 34.6±9.1 % in light-, 3.7±5.3 % in moderate- and, 0.3±0.6 % in vigorous-intensity activity. Average time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA) was 36.2±27.5 min/day. Relative to men, women had higher sedentary time, but also higher vigorous activity time. The 'usual' bout duration of sedentary time was 11.8±4.5 min in women and 11.7±5.2 min in men. By contrast, other activities were accumulated in shorter bout durations. There was large variation by hour of the day and by day of the week in both sedentary time and MVPA. Evenings and Sundays through Wednesdays tended to be particularly sedentary and/or inactive. Conclusion: For these young adults, much of the waking day was spent sedentary and many participants were physically inactive (low levels of MVPA). We provide novel evidence on the time for which activities were performed and on the time periods when young adults were more sedentary and/or less active. With high sedentary time and low MVPA, young adults may be at risk for the life-course sequelae of these behaviours

    Genome-Wide Gene-Environment Study Identifies Glutamate Receptor Gene GRIN2A as a Parkinson's Disease Modifier Gene via Interaction with Coffee

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    Our aim was to identify genes that influence the inverse association of coffee with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). We used genome-wide genotype data and lifetime caffeinated-coffee-consumption data on 1,458 persons with PD and 931 without PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC), and we performed a genome-wide association and interaction study (GWAIS), testing each SNP's main-effect plus its interaction with coffee, adjusting for sex, age, and two principal components. We then stratified subjects as heavy or light coffee-drinkers and performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) in each group. We replicated the most significant SNP. Finally, we imputed the NGRC dataset, increasing genomic coverage to examine the region of interest in detail. The primary analyses (GWAIS, GWAS, Replication) were performed using genotyped data. In GWAIS, the most significant signal came from rs4998386 and the neighboring SNPs in GRIN2A. GRIN2A encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit and regulates excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Achieving P2df = 10−6, GRIN2A surpassed all known PD susceptibility genes in significance in the GWAIS. In stratified GWAS, the GRIN2A signal was present in heavy coffee-drinkers (OR = 0.43; P = 6×10−7) but not in light coffee-drinkers. The a priori Replication hypothesis that “Among heavy coffee-drinkers, rs4998386_T carriers have lower PD risk than rs4998386_CC carriers” was confirmed: ORReplication = 0.59, PReplication = 10−3; ORPooled = 0.51, PPooled = 7×10−8. Compared to light coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype, heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype had 18% lower risk (P = 3×10−3), whereas heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_TC genotype had 59% lower risk (P = 6×10−13). Imputation revealed a block of SNPs that achieved P2df<5×10−8 in GWAIS, and OR = 0.41, P = 3×10−8 in heavy coffee-drinkers. This study is proof of concept that inclusion of environmental factors can help identify genes that are missed in GWAS. Both adenosine antagonists (caffeine-like) and glutamate antagonists (GRIN2A-related) are being tested in clinical trials for treatment of PD. GRIN2A may be a useful pharmacogenetic marker for subdividing individuals in clinical trials to determine which medications might work best for which patients

    Relationships between psychosocial outcomes in adolescents who are obese and their parents during a multi-disciplinary family-based healthy lifestyle intervention: One-year follow-up of a waitlist controlled trial (Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program)

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    Background: Limited studies have investigated relationships in psychosocial outcomes between adolescents who are obese and their parents and how psychosocial outcomes change during participation in a physical activity and healthy eating intervention. This study examined both adolescent and parent psychosocial outcomes while participating in a one - year multi-disciplinary family-based intervention: Curtin University’s Activity, Food, and Attitudes Program (CAFAP). Methods: Following a waitlist control period, the intervention was delivered to adolescent (n = 56, ages 11–16) and parent participants over 8 weeks, with one-year maintenance follow-up. Adolescent depression and quality of life, family functioning, and parent depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed at six time points: baseline and prior to intervention (e.g., waitlist control period), immediately following intervention, and at 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. Relationships between adolescent and parent psychosocial outcomes were assessed using Spearman correlations and changes in both adolescent and parent outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models. Changes in adolescent psychosocial outcomes were compared to changes in behavioural (physical activity and healthy eating) and physical (weight) outcomes using independent samples t-tests.Results: The majority of psychosocial outcomes were significantly correlated between adolescents and parents across the one-year follow-up. Adolescent depression, psychosocial and physical quality of life outcomes significantly improved before or following intervention and were maintained at 6-months or one-year follow-up. Parent symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress were reduced during waitlist and primarily remained improved. Changes in adolescent psychosocial outcomes were shown to be partially associated with behavioural changes and independent of physical changes. Conclusions: Adolescents in CAFAP improved psychosocial and physical quality of life and reversed the typical trajectory of depressive symptoms in adolescents who are obese during a one-year maintenance period. CAFAP was also effective at maintaining reductions in parent symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress demonstrated during the waitlist period. Trial Registration: The trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (No. 12611001187932)

    Musculoskeletal pain latent classes and biopsychosocial characteristics among emerging adults

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    Abstract Background Emerging adults (aged 18–29) report high levels of musculoskeletal pain; however, it is unknown if body location and intensity patterns are related to different biopsychosocial characteristics. This study identified patterns of self-reported musculoskeletal pain among emerging adults and assessed if there were differences in their lifestyle and psychological characteristics. Methods Data from survey responses from a large public university and a large medical university in the United States were used (n = 1,318). Self-reported pain location and intensity at five body regions were assessed, and latent class analysis identified classes separately for men and women. Mental health, physical activity, and sleep outcomes were compared between the classes. Results Four classes were identified for men and women. Three of the classes were consistent between genders – “no pain,” (women = 28% of their sample; men = 40% of their sample) “mild multisite pain,” (women = 50%; men = 39%) and “moderate-severe multisite pain” (women = 9%; men = 7%). The fourth class for women was “moderate spine pain,” (13%) and for men was “mild extremity pain” (13%). For both men and women, the “moderate-severe multisite” pain classes reported the highest levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, poorer sleep, and higher work physical activity than the “no pain” class. The “mild multisite” and “moderate spine” (women only) pain classes fell between the “no pain” and “moderate-severe” pain classes. The characteristics of the “mild upper extremity pain” class for men was similar to the “no pain” class. Conclusions The identified classes provide unique information on pain location and intensity in emerging adults. The high prevalence of “mild multisite pain” (n = 593; 45% of the total sample) demonstrates an intervention opportunity during this age range to prevent further increases in musculoskeletal pain later in life. Future work should assess the longitudinal outcomes of these pain classes, the impact of interventions for this age group, and the balance between leisure and occupational physical activity when addressing musculoskeletal health