493 research outputs found

    Hypertableau Reasoning for Description Logics

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    We present a novel reasoning calculus for the description logic SHOIQ^+---a knowledge representation formalism with applications in areas such as the Semantic Web. Unnecessary nondeterminism and the construction of large models are two primary sources of inefficiency in the tableau-based reasoning calculi used in state-of-the-art reasoners. In order to reduce nondeterminism, we base our calculus on hypertableau and hyperresolution calculi, which we extend with a blocking condition to ensure termination. In order to reduce the size of the constructed models, we introduce anywhere pairwise blocking. We also present an improved nominal introduction rule that ensures termination in the presence of nominals, inverse roles, and number restrictions---a combination of DL constructs that has proven notoriously difficult to handle. Our implementation shows significant performance improvements over state-of-the-art reasoners on several well-known ontologies

    Practical Reasoning for Very Expressive Description Logics

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    Description Logics (DLs) are a family of knowledge representation formalisms mainly characterised by constructors to build complex concepts and roles from atomic ones. Expressive role constructors are important in many applications, but can be computationally problematical. We present an algorithm that decides satisfiability of the DL ALC extended with transitive and inverse roles and functional restrictions with respect to general concept inclusion axioms and role hierarchies; early experiments indicate that this algorithm is well-suited for implementation. Additionally, we show that ALC extended with just transitive and inverse roles is still in PSPACE. We investigate the limits of decidability for this family of DLs, showing that relaxing the constraints placed on the kinds of roles used in number restrictions leads to the undecidability of all inference problems. Finally, we describe a number of optimisation techniques that are crucial in obtaining implementations of the decision procedures, which, despite the worst-case complexity of the problem, exhibit good performance with real-life problems

    Combining Rewriting and Incremental Materialisation Maintenance for Datalog Programs with Equality

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    Materialisation precomputes all consequences of a set of facts and a datalog program so that queries can be evaluated directly (i.e., independently from the program). Rewriting optimises materialisation for datalog programs with equality by replacing all equal constants with a single representative; and incremental maintenance algorithms can efficiently update a materialisation for small changes in the input facts. Both techniques are critical to practical applicability of datalog systems; however, we are unaware of an approach that combines rewriting and incremental maintenance. In this paper we present the first such combination, and we show empirically that it can speed up updates by several orders of magnitude compared to using either rewriting or incremental maintenance in isolation.Comment: All proofs contained in the appendix. 7 pages + 4 pages appendix. 7 algorithms and one table with evaluation result

    Conjunctive Query Answering for the Description Logic SHIQ

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    Conjunctive queries play an important role as an expressive query language for Description Logics (DLs). Although modern DLs usually provide for transitive roles, conjunctive query answering over DL knowledge bases is only poorly understood if transitive roles are admitted in the query. In this paper, we consider unions of conjunctive queries over knowledge bases formulated in the prominent DL SHIQ and allow transitive roles in both the query and the knowledge base. We show decidability of query answering in this setting and establish two tight complexity bounds: regarding combined complexity, we prove that there is a deterministic algorithm for query answering that needs time single exponential in the size of the KB and double exponential in the size of the query, which is optimal. Regarding data complexity, we prove containment in co-NP

    Optimisation of Terminological Reasoning

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    When reasoning in description, modal or temporal logics it is often useful to consider axioms representing universal truths in the domain of discourse. Reasoning with respect to an arbitrary set of axioms is hard, even for relatively inexpressive logics, and it is essential to deal with such axioms in an efficient manner if implemented systems are to be effective in real applications. This is particularly relevant to Description Logics, where subsumption reasoning with respect to a terminology is a fundamental problem. Two optimisation techniques that have proved to be particularly effective in dealing with terminologies are lazy unfolding and absorption. In this paper we seek to improve our theoretical understanding of these important techniques. We define a formal framework that allows the techniques to be precisely described, establish conditions under which they can be safely applied, and prove that, provided these conditions are respected, subsumption testing algorithms will still function correctly. These results are used to show that the procedures used in the FaCT system are correct and, moreover, to show how effiency an be significantly improved, while still retaining the guarantee of correctness, by relaxing the safety conditions for absorption.An extended abstract of this report was submitted to the Seventh International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR2000)

    Knowledge-based Transfer Learning Explanation

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    Machine learning explanation can significantly boost machine learning's application in decision making, but the usability of current methods is limited in human-centric explanation, especially for transfer learning, an important machine learning branch that aims at utilizing knowledge from one learning domain (i.e., a pair of dataset and prediction task) to enhance prediction model training in another learning domain. In this paper, we propose an ontology-based approach for human-centric explanation of transfer learning. Three kinds of knowledge-based explanatory evidence, with different granularities, including general factors, particular narrators and core contexts are first proposed and then inferred with both local ontologies and external knowledge bases. The evaluation with US flight data and DBpedia has presented their confidence and availability in explaining the transferability of feature representation in flight departure delay forecasting.Comment: Accepted by International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, 201
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