930 research outputs found

    Dielectric Metasurfaces for Complete Control of Phase and Polarization with Subwavelength Spatial Resolution and High Transmission

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    Metasurfaces are planar structures that locally modify the polarization, phase, and amplitude of light in reflection or transmission, thus enabling lithographically patterned flat optical components with functionalities controlled by design. Transmissive metasurfaces are especially important, as most optical systems used in practice operate in transmission. Several types of transmissive metasurfaces have been realized, but with either low transmission efficiencies or limited control over polarization and phase. Here we show a metasurface platform based on high-contrast dielectric elliptical nano-posts which provides complete control of polarization and phase with sub-wavelength spatial resolution and experimentally measured efficiency ranging from 72% to 97%, depending on the exact design. Such complete control enables the realization of most free-space transmissive optical elements such as lenses, phase-plates, wave-plates, polarizers, beam-splitters, as well as polarization switchable phase holograms and arbitrary vector beam generators using the same metamaterial platform.Comment: Nature Nanotechnology (2015

    Wide bandwidth and high resolution planar filter array based on DBR-metasurface-DBR structures

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    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a planar array of optical bandpass filters composed of low loss dielectric metasurface layers sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). The two DBRs form a Fabry-P\'erot resonator whose center wavelength is controlled by the design of the transmissive metasurface layer which functions as a phase shifting element. We demonstrate an array of bandpass filters with spatially varying center wavelengths covering a wide range of operation wavelengths of 250 nm around {\lambda} = 1550 nm ({\Delta}{\lambda}/{\lambda} = 16%). The center wavelengths of each filter are independently controlled only by changing the in-plane geometry of the sandwiched metasurfaces, and the experimentally measured quality factors are larger than 700. The demonstrated filter array can be directly integrated on top of photodetector arrays to realize on-chip high-resolution spectrometers with free-space coupling

    Multiwavelength polarization insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with meta-molecules

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    Metasurfaces are nano-structured devices composed of arrays of subwavelength scatterers (or meta-atoms) that manipulate the wavefront, polarization, or intensity of light. Like other diffractive optical devices, metasurfaces suffer from significant chromatic aberrations that limit their bandwidth. Here, we present a method for designing multiwavelength metasurfaces using unit cells with multiple meta-atoms, or meta-molecules. Transmissive lenses with efficiencies as high as 72% and numerical apertures as high as 0.46 simultaneously operating at 915 nm and 1550 nm are demonstrated. With proper scaling, these devices can be used in applications where operation at distinct known wavelengths is required, like various fluorescence microscopy techniques

    Planar retroreflector

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    We propose a planar retroreflector composed of two cascaded high contrast periodic structures with slowly varying features. One of the high contrast structures focuses the light while the other reflects it as a concave mirror

    Guided resonance reflective phase shifters

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    We present reflective phase shifters based on high contrast gratings resting on a low-index spacer backed by a metallic mirror. The guided resonance of the grating combined with the reflection from the metallic mirror leads to an all-pass filter with 2π phase shift variation and unity reflectivity across the resonance. We present simulations, fabrication and measurement of passive devices fabricated in silicon over gold using a polymer as the spacer layer. Active control at high modulation speeds can be achieved by shifting the guided resonance wavelength using carrier injection or thermo-optic effect in silicon

    On-chip broadband spectral filtering using planar double high-contrast grating reflectors

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    We propose a broadband free-space on-chip spectrometer based on an array of integrated narrowband filters consisting of Fabry-Perot resonators formed by two high-contrast grating (HCG) based reflectors separated by a low-index thin layer with a fixed cavity thickness. Using numerical simulations, broadband tunability of resonance wavelengths was achieved only by changing the in-plane grating parameters such as period or duty cycle of HCGs while the substrate geometry was kept fixed. Experimentally, the HCG reflectors were fabricated on silicon on insulator (SOI) substrates and high reflectivity was measured, fabrication process for the proposed double HCG-based narrowband filter array was developed. The filtering function that can be spanned over a wide range of wavelengths was measured

    Angle-multiplexed metasurfaces: encoding independent wavefronts in a single metasurface under different illumination angles

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    The angular response of thin diffractive optical elements is highly correlated. For example, the angles of incidence and diffraction of a grating are locked through the grating momentum determined by the grating period. Other diffractive devices, including conventional metasurfaces, have a similar angular behavior due to the fixed locations of the Fresnel zone boundaries and the weak angular sensitivity of the meta-atoms. To alter this fundamental property, we introduce angle-multiplexed metasurfaces, composed of reflective high-contrast dielectric U-shaped meta-atoms, whose response under illumination from different angles can be controlled independently. This enables flat optical devices that impose different and independent optical transformations when illuminated from different directions, a capability not previously available in diffractive optics
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