11,419 research outputs found

    Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique at Mach 6

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    Current design philosophy for hydrogen-fueled, scramjet-powered hypersonic aircraft results in configurations with strong couplings between the engine plume and vehicle aerodynamics. The experimental verification of the scramjet exhaust simulation is described. The scramjet exhaust was reproduced for the Mach 6 flight condition by the detonation tube simulator. The exhaust flow pressure profiles, and to a large extent the heat transfer rate profiles, were then duplicated by cool gas mixtures of Argon and Freon 13B1 or Freon 12. The results of these experiments indicate that a cool gas simulation of the hot scramjet exhaust is a viable simulation technique except for phenomena which are dependent on the wall temperature relative to flow temperature

    Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique

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    Scramjet/airframe integration design philosophy for hypersonic aircraft results in configurations having lower aft surfaces that serve as exhaust nozzles. There is a strong coupling between the exhaust plume and the aerodynamics of the vehicle, making accurate simulation of the engine exhaust mandatory. The experimental verification of the simulation procedure is described. The detonation tube simulator was used to produce an exact simulation of the scramjet exhaust for a Mach 8 flight condition. The pressure distributions produced by the exact exhaust flow were then duplicated by a cool mixture Argon and Freon 13B1. Such a substitute gas mixture validated by the detonation tube technique could be used in conventional wind tunnel tests. The results presented show the substitute gas simulation technique to be valid for shockless expansions

    Center for Space Power and Advanced Electronics, Auburn University

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    The union of Auburn University's Center for Space Power and Advanced Electronics and the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center to form a Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) is discussed. An area of focus for the CCDS will be the development of silicon carbide electronics technology, in terms of semiconductors and crystal growth. The discussion is presented in viewgraph form

    A fault-tolerant multiprocessor architecture for aircraft, volume 1

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    A fault-tolerant multiprocessor architecture is reported. This architecture, together with a comprehensive information system architecture, has important potential for future aircraft applications. A preliminary definition and assessment of a suitable multiprocessor architecture for such applications is developed

    Furnace and support equipment for space processing

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    A core facility capable of performing a majority of materials processing experiments is discussed. Experiment classes are described, the needs peculiar to each experiment type are outlined, and projected facility requirements to perform the experiments are treated. Control equipment (automatic control) and variations of the Czochralski method for use in space are discussed

    Chandra Observations of Galaxy Zoo Mergers: Frequency of Binary Active Nuclei in Massive Mergers

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    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 1011^{11} MM_\odot that already have optical AGN signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (NH1.1×1022N_H \lesssim 1.1 \times 10^{22} cm2^{-2}) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (<40< 40 counts per nucleus; f210keV1.2×1013f_{2-10 keV} \lesssim 1.2 \times 10^{-13} erg s1^{-1} cm2^{-2}) to reliably separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGN in these mergers are rare (0-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.Comment: 8 pages, including 5 figures and 1 table. Accepted by Ap

    Public perceptions of how to reduce carbon footprints of consumer food choices

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    Carbon footprints – the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with consumer food choices –substantially contribute to climate change. Life cycle analyses from climate and environmental sciences have identified effective rules for reducing these food-related carbon footprints, including eating seasonal produce and replacing dairy and red meat with plant-based products. In a national UK survey, we studied how many and which rules our participants generated for reducing GHG emissions of produce, dairy, and protein-rich products. We also asked participants to estimate GHG emission reductions associated with pre-selected rules, expressed in either grams or percentages. We found that participants generated few and relatively less effective rules, including ambiguous ones like 'Buy local'. Furthermore, participants' numerical estimates of pre-selected rules were less accurate when they assessed GHG emission reductions in grams rather than in percentages. Findings suggest a need for communicating fewer rules in percentages, for informing consumers about reducing food-related GHG emissions

    GROWTH AND NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION AS CONTROLLED BY OXYGEN SUPPLY TO PLANT ROOTS

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