53 research outputs found

    Decreased myocardial injury and improved contractility after administration of a peptide derived against the alpha-interacting domain of the L-type calcium channel.

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    BackgroundMyocardial infarction remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease. The L-type calcium channel (IC a-L) is critical to excitation and contraction. Activation of the channel also alters mitochondrial function. Here, we investigated whether application of a alpha-interacting domain/transactivator of transcription (AID-TAT) peptide, which immobilizes the auxiliary β2 subunit of the channel and decreases metabolic demand, could alter mitochondrial function and myocardial injury.Methods and resultsTreatment with AID-TAT peptide decreased ischemia-reperfusion injury in guinea-pig hearts ex vivo (n=11) and in rats in vivo (n=9) assessed with uptake of nitroblue tetrazolium, release of creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Contractility (assessed with catheterization of the left ventricle) was improved after application of AID-TAT peptide in hearts ex vivo (n=6) and in vivo (n=8) up to 12 weeks before sacrifice. In search of the mechanism for the effect, we found that intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i, Fura-2), superoxide production (dihydroethidium fluorescence), mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm, JC-1 fluorescence), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide production, and flavoprotein oxidation (autofluorescence) are decreased after application of AID-TAT peptide.ConclusionsApplication of AID-TAT peptide significantly decreased infarct size and supported contractility up to 12 weeks postcoronary artery occlusion as a result of a decrease in metabolic demand during reperfusion

    Myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants inhibit sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase activity, and perturb Ca2+ homeostasis in human coronary artery endothelial cells

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    The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) plays a critical role in Ca2+ homeostasis via sequestration of this ion into the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum. The activity of this pump is inhibited by oxidants and impaired in ageing tissues and cardiovascular disease. We have shown previously that the myeloperoxidase- (MPO) derived oxidants HOCl and HOSCN target thiols and mediate cellular dysfunction. As SERCA contains Cys residues critical to ATPase activity, we hypothesized that HOCl and HOSCN might inhibit SERCA activity, via thiol oxidation, and increase cytosolic Ca2+ levels in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). Exposure of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles to pre-formed or enzymatically-generated HOCl and HOSCN resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in ATPase activity; this was also inhibited by the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin. Decomposed HOSCN and incomplete MPO enzyme systems did not decrease activity. Loss of ATPase activity occurred concurrently with oxidation of SERCA Cys residues and protein modification. Exposure of HCAEC, with or without external Ca2+, to HOSCN or HOCl, resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+ under conditions that did not result in immediate loss of cell viability. Thapsigargin, but not inhibitors of plasma membrane or mitochondrial Ca2+ pumps/channels, completely attenuated the increase in intracellular Ca2+ consistent with a critical role for SERCA in maintaining endothelial cell Ca2+ homeostasis. Angiotensin II pre-treatment potentiated the effect of HOSCN at low concentrations. MPO-mediated modulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels may exacerbate endothelial dysfunction, a key early event in atherosclerosis, and be more marked in smokers due to their higher SCN− levels

    Deranged sodium to sudden death

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    In February 2014, a group of scientists convened as part of the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium to bring together experimental and mathematical modelling perspectives and discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. This paper summarizes the topics of presentation and discussion from the symposium, with a focus on the role of aberrant sodium channels and abnormal sodium homeostasis in cardiac arrhythmias and pharmacotherapy from the subcellular scale to the whole heart. Two following papers focus on Na⁺ channel structure, function and regulation, and Na⁺/Ca²⁺ exchange and Na⁺/K⁺ ATPase. The UC Davis Cardiovascular Symposium is a biannual event that aims to bring together leading experts in subfields of cardiovascular biomedicine to focus on topics of importance to the field. The focus on Na⁺ in the 2014 symposium stemmed from the multitude of recent studies that point to the importance of maintaining Na⁺ homeostasis in the heart, as disruption of homeostatic processes are increasingly identified in cardiac disease states. Understanding how disruption in cardiac Na⁺-based processes leads to derangement in multiple cardiac components at the level of the cell and to then connect these perturbations to emergent behaviour in the heart to cause disease is a critical area of research. The ubiquity of disruption of Na⁺ channels and Na⁺ homeostasis in cardiac disorders of excitability and mechanics emphasizes the importance of a fundamental understanding of the associated mechanisms and disease processes to ultimately reveal new targets for human therapy.Centro de Investigaciones Cardiovasculare