4,627 research outputs found

    Knuthian Drawings of Series-Parallel Flowcharts

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    Inspired by a classic paper by Knuth, we revisit the problem of drawing flowcharts of loop-free algorithms, that is, degree-three series-parallel digraphs. Our drawing algorithms show that it is possible to produce Knuthian drawings of degree-three series-parallel digraphs with good aspect ratios and small numbers of edge bends.Comment: Full versio

    Situational-Context for Virtually Modeling the Elderly

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    The generalized aging of the population is incrementing the pressure over, frequently overextended, healthcare systems. This situations is even worse in underdeveloped, sparsely populated regions like Extremadura in Spain or Alentejo in Portugal. In this paper we propose an initial approach to use the Situational-Context, a technique to seamlessly adapt Internet of Things systems to the needs and preferences of their users, for virtually modeling the elderly. These models could be used to enhance the elderly experience when using those kind of systems without raising the need for technical skills. The proposed virtual models will also be the basis for further eldercare innovations in sparsely populated regions

    Simultaneous Embeddings with Few Bends and Crossings

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    A simultaneous embedding with fixed edges (SEFE) of two planar graphs RR and BB is a pair of plane drawings of RR and BB that coincide when restricted to the common vertices and edges of RR and BB. We show that whenever RR and BB admit a SEFE, they also admit a SEFE in which every edge is a polygonal curve with few bends and every pair of edges has few crossings. Specifically: (1) if RR and BB are trees then one bend per edge and four crossings per edge pair suffice (and one bend per edge is sometimes necessary), (2) if RR is a planar graph and BB is a tree then six bends per edge and eight crossings per edge pair suffice, and (3) if RR and BB are planar graphs then six bends per edge and sixteen crossings per edge pair suffice. Our results improve on a paper by Grilli et al. (GD'14), which proves that nine bends per edge suffice, and on a paper by Chan et al. (GD'14), which proves that twenty-four crossings per edge pair suffice.Comment: Full version of the paper "Simultaneous Embeddings with Few Bends and Crossings" accepted at GD '1

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Ni Thin Films and Application to Area-Selective Deposition

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    Ni thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using bis(dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-butoxo)nickel [Ni(dmamb)(2)] as a precursor and NH3 gas as a reactant. The growth characteristics and film properties of ALD Ni were investigated. Low-resistivity films were deposited on Si and SiO2 substrates, producing high-purity Ni films with a small amount of oxygen and negligible amounts of nitrogen and carbon. Additionally, ALD Ni showed excellent conformality in nanoscale via holes. Utilizing this conformality, Ni/Si core/shell nanowires with uniform diameters were fabricated. By combining ALD Ni with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) self-assembled monolayer as a blocking layer, area-selective ALD was conducted for selective deposition of Ni films. When performed on the prepatterned OTS substrate, the Ni films were selectively coated only on OTS-free regions, building up Ni line patterns with 3 mu m width. Electrical measurement results showed that all of the Ni lines were electrically isolated, also indicating the selective Ni deposition. (C) 2010 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/1.3504196] All rights reserved.ope

    Properties of Light Flavour Baryons in Hypercentral quark model

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    The light flavour baryons are studied within the quark model using the hyper central description of the three-body system. The confinement potential is assumed as hypercentral coulomb plus power potential (hCPPνhCPP_\nu) with power index ν\nu. The masses and magnetic moments of light flavour baryons are computed for different power index, ν\nu starting from 0.5 to 1.5. The predicted masses and magnetic moments are found to attain a saturated value with respect to variation in ν\nu beyond the power index ν>\nu> 1.0. Further we computed transition magnetic moments and radiative decay width of light flavour baryons. The results are in good agreement with known experimental as well as other theoretical models.Comment: Accepted in Pramana J. of Physic

    Establishment of a normal medakafish spermatogonial cell line capable of sperm production in vitro

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    Spermatogonia are the male germ stem cells that continuously produce sperm for the next generation. Spermatogenesis is a complicated process that proceeds through mitotic phase of stem cell renewal and differentiation, meiotic phase, and postmeiotic phase of spermiogenesis. Full recapitulation of spermatogenesis in vitro has been impossible, as generation of normal spermatogonial stem cell lines without immortalization and production of motile sperm from these cells after long-term culture have not been achieved. Here we report the derivation of a normal spermatogonial cell line from a mature medakafish testis without immortalization. After 140 passages during 2 years of culture, this cell line retains stable but growth factor-dependent proliferation, a diploid karyotype, and the phenotype and gene expression pattern of spermatogonial stem cells. Furthermore, we show that this cell line can undergo meiosis and spermiogenesis to generate motile sperm. Therefore, the ability of continuous proliferation and sperm production in culture is an intrinsic property of medaka spermatogonial stem cells, and immortalization apparently is not necessary to derive male germ cell cultures. Our findings and cell line will offer a unique opportunity to study and recapitulate spermatogenesis in vitro and to develop approaches for germ-line transmission.Spermatogonia are the male germ stem cells that continuously produce sperm for the next generation. Spermatogenesis is a complicated process that proceeds through mitotic phase of stem cell renewal and differentiation, meiotic phase, and postmeiotic phase of spermiogenesis. Full recapitulation of spermatogenesis in vitro has been impossible, as generation of normal spermatogonial stem cell lines without immortalization and production of motile sperm from these cells after long-term culture have not been achieved. Here we report the derivation of a normal spermatogonial cell line from a mature medakafish testis without immortalization. After 140 passages during 2 years of culture, this cell line retains stable but growth factor-dependent proliferation, a diploid karyotype, and the phenotype and gene expression pattern of spermatogonial stem cells. Furthermore, we show that this cell line can undergo meiosis and spermiogenesis to generate motile sperm. Therefore, the ability of continuous proliferation and sperm production in culture is an intrinsic property of medaka spermatogonial stem cells, and immortalization apparently is not necessary to derive male germ cell cultures. Our findings and cell line will offer a unique opportunity to study and recapitulate spermatogenesis in vitro and to develop approaches for germ-line transmission

    Contrasting the Percutaneous Nerve Evaluation Versus Staged Implantation in Sacral Neuromodulation

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    Sacral neuromodulation is increasingly used for the treatment of voiding dysfunction, pelvic pain syndromes, and gastrointestinal disorders. While increased use of this technology has led to a greater understanding of its potential as well as its limitations, difficulty persists in identifying the patients that will benefit most. Either of two trial stimulation techniques is performed before placement of a permanent neuromodulator: the monopolar percutaneous nerve evaluation and the tined quadripolar staged trial. The preponderance of recent literature asserts the superior sensitivity of the staged trial over percutaneous nerve evaluation. However, the techniques offer disparate advantages, and other issues, such as cost-effectiveness, remain largely unexplored. The role of sacral neuromodulation will continue to expand as physicians and patients become increasingly aware of its therapeutic potential. Widespread adoption of this clinically superior technique will most rapidly help the greatest number of patients

    High glucose up-regulates ENaC and SGK1 expression in HCD-cells

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    Background/Aim: Diabetic nephropathy is associated with progressive renal damage, leading to impaired function and end-stage renal failure. Secondary hypertension stems from a deranged ability of cells within the kidney to resolve and appropriately regulate sodium resorption in response to hyperglycaemia. However, the mechanisms by which glucose alters sodium re-uptake have not been fully characterised. Methods: Here we present RT-PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry data confirming mRNA and protein expression of the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase (SGK1) and the a conducting subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in a model in vitro system of the human cortical collecting duct (HCD). We examined changes in expression of these elements in response to glucose challenge, designed to mimic hyperglycaemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Changes in Na+ concentration were assessed using single-cell microfluorimetry. Results: Incubation with glucose, the Ca2+-ionophore ionomycin and the cytokine TGF-beta 1 were all found to evoke significant and time-dependent increases in both SGK1 and alpha ENaC protein expression. These molecular changes were correlated to an increase in Na+-uptake at the single-cell level. Conclusion: Together these data offer a potential explanation for glucose-evoked Na+-resorption and a potential contributory role of SGK1 and ENaCs in development of secondary hypertension, commonly linked to diabetic nephropathy

    Improving the performance of bright quantum dot single photon sources using amplitude modulation

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    Single epitaxially-grown semiconductor quantum dots have great potential as single photon sources for photonic quantum technologies, though in practice devices often exhibit non-ideal behavior. Here, we demonstrate that amplitude modulation can improve the performance of quantum-dot-based sources. Starting with a bright source consisting of a single quantum dot in a fiber-coupled microdisk cavity, we use synchronized amplitude modulation to temporally filter the emitted light. We observe that the single photon purity, temporal overlap between successive emission events, and indistinguishability can be greatly improved with this technique. As this method can be applied to any triggered single photon source, independent of geometry and after device fabrication, it is a flexible approach to improve the performance of solid-state systems, which often suffer from excess dephasing and multi-photon background emission
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