162 research outputs found

    Nontypical Wulff-Shape Silicon Nanosheets with High Catalytic Activity

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    Nanostructured silicon with an equilibrium shape has exhibited hydrogen evolution reaction activity mainly owing to its high surface area, which is distinct from that of bulk silicon. Such a Wulff shape of silicon favors low-surface-energy planes, resulting in silicon being an anisotropic and predictably faceted solid in which certain planes are favored, but this limits further improvement of the catalytic activity. Here, we introduce nanoporous silicon nanosheets that possess high-surface-energy crystal planes, leading to an unconventional Wulff shape that bolsters the catalytic activity. The high-index plane, uncommonly seen in the Wulff shape of bulk Si, has a band structure optimally aligned with the redox potential necessary for hydrogen generation, resulting in an apparent quantum yield (AQY) of 12.1% at a 400 nm wavelength. The enhanced light absorption in nanoporous silicon nanosheets also contributes to the high photocatalytic activity. Collectively, the strategy of making crystals with nontypical Wulff shapes can provide a route toward various classes of photocatalysts for hydrogen production.11Nsciescopu

    Nontypical Wulff-Shape Silicon Nanosheets with High Catalytic Activity

    No full text
    Nanostructured silicon with an equilibrium shape has exhibited hydrogen evolution reaction activity mainly owing to its high surface area, which is distinct from that of bulk silicon. Such a Wulff shape of silicon favors low-surface-energy planes, resulting in silicon being an anisotropic and predictably faceted solid in which certain planes are favored, but this limits further improvement of the catalytic activity. Here, we introduce nanoporous silicon nanosheets that possess high-surface-energy crystal planes, leading to an unconventional Wulff shape that bolsters the catalytic activity. The high-index plane, uncommonly seen in the Wulff shape of bulk Si, has a band structure optimally aligned with the redox potential necessary for hydrogen generation, resulting in an apparent quantum yield (AQY) of 12.1% at a 400 nm wavelength. The enhanced light absorption in nanoporous silicon nanosheets also contributes to the high photocatalytic activity. Collectively, the strategy of making crystals with nontypical Wulff shapes can provide a route toward various classes of photocatalysts for hydrogen production

    Comparative analysis of mesenchymal stem cells cultivated in serum free media

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    Stem cells are attractive candidates for the regeneration of tissue and organ. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated for their potential applications in regenerative medicine and cell therapy. For developing effective stem cell therapy, the mass production of consistent quality cells is required. The cell culture medium is the most critical aspect of the mass production of qualified stem cells. Classically, fetal bovine serum (FBS) has been used as a culture supplement for MSCs. Due to the undefined and heterologous composition of animal origin components in FBS, efforts to replace animal-derived components with non-animal-derived substances led to safe serum free media (SFM). Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) cultivated in SFM provided a more stable population doubling time (PDT) to later passage and more cells in a shorter time compared to FBS containing media. ADSCs cultivated in SFM had lower cellular senescence, lower immunogenicity, and higher genetic stability than ADSCs cultivated in FBS containing media. Differential expression analysis of mRNAs and proteins showed that the expression of genes related with apoptosis, immune response, and inflammatory response were significantly up-regulated in ADSCs cultivated in FBS containing media. ADSCs cultivated in SFM showed similar therapeutic efficacy in an acute pancreatitis mouse model to ADSCs cultivated in FBS containing media. Consideration of clinical trials, not only pre-clinical trial, suggests that cultivation of MSCs using SFM might offer more safe cell therapeutics as well as repeated administration due to low immunogenicity.N

    Amplification of olfactory signals by Anoctamin 9 is important for mammalian olfaction

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    Sensing smells of foods, prey, or predators determines animal survival. Olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium (OE) detect odorants, where cAMP and Ca2+ play a significant role in transducing odorant inputs to electrical activity. Here we show Anoctamin 9, a cation channel activated by cAMP/PKA pathway, is expressed in the OE and amplifies olfactory signals. Ano9-deficient mice had reduced olfactory behavioral sensitivity, electro-olfactogram signals, and neural activity in the olfactory bulb. In line with the difference in olfaction between birds and other vertebrates, chick ANO9 failed to respond to odorants, whereas chick CNGA2, a major trans-duction channel, showed greater responses to cAMP. Thus, we concluded that the signal amplification by ANO9 is important for mammalian olfactory transduction.N

    Robust Co alloy design for Co interconnects using a self-forming barrier layer

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    Abstract With recent rapid increases in Cu resistivity, RC delay has become an important issue again. Co, which has a low electron mean free path, is being studied as beyond Cu metal and is expected to minimize this increase in resistivity. However, extrinsic time-dependent dielectric breakdown has been reported for Co interconnects. Therefore, it is necessary to apply a diffusion barrier, such as the Ta/TaN system, to increase interconnect lifetimes. In addition, an ultrathin diffusion barrier should be formed to occupy as little area as possible. This study provides a thermodynamic design for a self-forming barrier that provides reliability with Co interconnects. Since Cr, Mn, Sn, and Zn dopants exhibited surface diffusion or interfacial stable phases, the model constituted an effective alloy design. In the Co-Cr alloy, Cr diffused into the dielectric interface and reacted with oxygen to provide a self-forming diffusion barrier comprising Cr2O3. In a breakdown voltage test, the Co-Cr alloy showed a breakdown voltage more than 200% higher than that of pure Co. The 1.2 nm ultrathin Cr2O3 self-forming barrier will replace the current bilayer barrier system and contribute greatly to lowering the RC delay. It will realize high-performance Co interconnects with robust reliability in the future

    Diversity and Physiological Characteristics of Antarctic Lichens-Associated Bacteria

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    The diversity of lichen-associated bacteria from lichen taxa Cetraria, Cladonia, Megaspora, Pseudephebe, Psoroma, and Sphaerophorus was investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Physiological characteristics of the cultured bacterial isolates were investigated to understand possible roles in the lichen ecosystem. Proteobacteria (with a relative abundance of 69.7–96.7%) were mostly represented by the order Rhodospirillales. The 117 retrieved isolates were grouped into 35 phylotypes of the phyla Actinobacteria (27), Bacteroidetes (6), Deinococcus-Thermus (1), and Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria (53), Betaproteobacteria (18), and Gammaproteobacteria (12)). Hydrolysis of macromolecules such as skim milk, polymer, and (hypo)xanthine, solubilization of inorganic phosphate, production of phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid, and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen were observed in different taxa. The potential phototrophy of the strains of the genus Polymorphobacter which were cultivated from a lichen for the first time was revealed by the presence of genes involved in photosynthesis. Altogether, the physiological characteristics of diverse bacterial taxa from Antarctic lichens are considered to imply significant roles of lichen-associated bacteria to allow lichens to be tolerant or competitive in the harsh Antarctic environment

    Spectral Characteristics of the Antarctic Vegetation: A Case Study of Barton Peninsula

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    Spectral information is a proxy for understanding the characteristics of ground targets without a potentially disruptive contact. A spectral library is a collection of this information and serves as reference data in remote sensing analyses. Although widely used, data of this type for most ground objects in polar regions are notably absent. Remote sensing data are widely used in polar research because they can provide helpful information for difficult-to-access or extensive areas. However, a lack of ground truth hinders remote sensing efforts. Accordingly, a spectral library was developed for 16 common vegetation species and decayed moss in the ice-free areas of Antarctica using a field spectrometer. In particular, the relative importance of shortwave infrared wavelengths in identifying Antarctic vegetation using spectral similarity comparisons was demonstrated. Due to the lack of available remote sensing images of the study area, simulated images were generated using the developed spectral library. Then, these images were used to evaluate the potential performance of the classification and spectral unmixing according to spectral resolution. We believe that the developed library will enhance our understanding of Antarctic vegetation and will assist in the analysis of various remote sensing data

    Psoroma capense and P. esterhuyseniae (Pannariaceae), two new alpine species from South Africa

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    The new species Psoroma capense and P. esterhuyseniae are described from four alpine localities in the Western Cape Province of South Africa and are the only known Psoroma species from Africa. The specimens were all collected from moist sites near watercourses, on cool and mostly south-facing cliffs. Psoroma capense resembles P. tenue in gross morphology but differs in the ascending thallus squamules, lack of secondary compounds and short-ellipsoid to ovoid ascospores. However, a phylogenetic analysis involving the markers ITS, nucLSU, mtSSU and Mcm7, comparing the only recent collection of P. capense with previously published sequences, shows that it belongs to the P. hypnorum lineage, with no known, closely related species. Psoroma esterhuyseniae resembles P. hypnorum but has subglobose to short-ellipsoid ascospores without apical perispore extensions. The two species are thought to have evolved from one or two long-distance dispersal events during the Pleistocene

    Passive warming effect on soil microbial community and humic substance degradation in maritime Antarctic region

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    Although the maritime Antarctic has undergone rapid warming, the effects on indigenous soil-inhabiting microorganisms are not well known. Passive warming experiments using open-top chamber (OTC) have been performed on the Fildes Peninsula in the maritime Antarctic since 2008. When the soil temperature was measured at a depth of 2-5cm during the 2013-2015 summer seasons, the mean temperature inside OTC (OTC-In) increased by approximately 0.8 degrees C compared with outside OTC (OTC-Out), while soil chemical and physical characteristics did not change. Soils (2015 summer) from OTC-In and OTC-Out were subjected to analysis for change in microbial community and degradation rate of humic substances (HS, the largest pool of recalcitrant organic carbon in soil). Archaeal and bacterial communities in OTC-In were minimally affected by warming compared with those in OTC-Out, with archaeal methanogenic Thermoplasmata slightly increased in abundance. The abundance of heterotrophic fungi Ascomycota was significantly altered in OTC-In. Total bacterial and fungal biomass in OTC-In increased by 20% compared to OTC-Out, indicating that this may be due to increased microbial degradation activity for soil organic matter (SOM) including HS, which would result in the release of more low-molecular-weight growth substrates from SOM. Despite the effects of warming on the microbial community over the 8-years-experiments warming did not induce any detectable change in content or structure of polymeric HS. These results suggest that increased temperature may have significant and direct effects on soil microbial communities inhabiting maritime Antarctic and that soil microbes would subsequently provide more available carbon sources for other indigenous microbes
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