1,976 research outputs found

    Climate Change Impact Assessment on Han River Long Term Runoff in South Korea Based on RCP Climate Change Scenario

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    The 2007 World Economic Forum (WEF) referred to climate change as the overriding problem we face. Concerns have been raised about how global warming would accelerate future climate change and its consequences. Many climate change studies expect the possible occurrence of extreme high temperature, increase in heavy rains and strong typhoons in the near future. Currently, climate change scenarios are used to prepare an appropriate plan for these phenomena under climate change. The main purpose of this paper is to suggest and evaluate an operational method of assessing the potential impact of climate change on hydrologic components and water resources at the regional scale. Future runoff was simulated using high resolution Regional Circulation Model (RCM) (12.5 × 12.5 km) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenario operated by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and a semi-distribution model or SLURP (Semi-distributed Land Use-based Runoff Process). The study was carried out on the Han River including its nine dams. The study found that runoff characteristics, especially annual distribution, could change. The discharge in July tends to decrease while runoff can increase in August and September. The flow duration curve was estimated and compared with observed data and simulated daily runoff data for Paldang-dam to evaluate the effect of climate change. The analysis of the flow duration curve shows that the mean average low flow increased while the average wet and normal flow decreased under the climate change scenario

    Physical properties of transparent perovskite oxides (Ba,La)SnO3 with high electrical mobility at room temperature

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    Transparent electronic materials are increasingly in demand for a variety of optoelectronic applications. BaSnO3 is a semiconducting oxide with a large band gap of more than 3.1 eV. Recently, we discovered that La doped BaSnO3 exhibits unusually high electrical mobility of 320 cm^2(Vs)^-1 at room temperature and superior thermal stability at high temperatures [H. J. Kim et al. Appl. Phys. Express. 5, 061102 (2012)]. Following that work, we report various physical properties of (Ba,La)SnO3 single crystals and films including temperature-dependent transport and phonon properties, optical properties and first-principles calculations. We find that almost doping-independent mobility of 200-300 cm^2(Vs)^-1 is realized in the single crystals in a broad doping range from 1.0x10^19 to 4.0x10^20 cm^-3. Moreover, the conductivity of ~10^4 ohm^-1cm^-1 reached at the latter carrier density is comparable to the highest value. We attribute the high mobility to several physical properties of (Ba,La)SnO3: a small effective mass coming from the ideal Sn-O-Sn bonding, small disorder effects due to the doping away from the SnO2 conduction channel, and reduced carrier scattering due to the high dielectric constant. The observation of a reduced mobility of ~70 cm^2(Vs)^-1 in the film is mainly attributed to additional carrier-scatterings which are presumably created by the lattice mismatch between the substrate SrTiO3 and (Ba,La)SnO3. The main optical gap of (Ba,La)SnO3 single crystals remained at about 3.33 eV and the in-gap states only slightly increased, thus maintaining optical transparency in the visible region. Based on these, we suggest that the doped BaSnO3 system holds great potential for realizing all perovskite-based, transparent high-frequency high-power functional devices as well as highly mobile two-dimensional electron gas via interface control of heterostructured films.Comment: 31 pages, 7 figure

    The orphan nuclear receptor SHP is a positive regulator of osteoblastic bone formation

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    The orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2) interacts with a diverse array of transcription factors and regulates a variety of cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism. However, the role of SHP in bone formation has not yet been elucidated. SHP expression is significantly increased during osteoblast differentiation, and its expression is partially regulated by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), which plays an important role in bone formation. In our study, inhibition of SHP expression significantly repressed BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation and ectopic bone formation. In accordance with these in vitro and in vivo results, osteoblast differentiation in SHP −/− mice primary osteoblasts was significantly repressed, and the mice showed decreased bone mass resulting from decreased numbers of osteoblasts. Finally, SHP physically interacts and forms a complex with runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) on the osteocalcin gene promoter, and overexpression of SHP increased Runx2 transactivity via competition with histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), an enzyme that inhibits DNA binding of Runx2 to its target genes. Taken together, these results indicate that SHP acts as a novel positive regulator of bone formation by augmenting osteoblast differentiation through regulation of the transcriptional activity of Runx2. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral ResearchPeer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/65055/1/90718_ftp.pd

    The Effect of Clonidine Pretreatment on Epidural Resiniferatoxin in a Neuropathic Pain Rat Model

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    Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is an ultrapotent synthetic TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1) agonist with significant initial transient hyperalgesia followed by a prolonged analgesic effect in response to thermal stimulus. Using a rat model of neuropathic pain, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with clonidine-which has been shown to relieve intradermal capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia-on the initial hyperalgesic response and the thermal analgesic property of RTX. Thirty-six male rats were divided into 6 treatment groups (n=6 each):RTX 500ng, RTX 1μg, clonidine 20μg (Cl), Cl+RTX 500ng, Cl+RTX 1μg, or normal saline 20μL (control). We evaluated the short-term (180min) and long-term (20 days) analgesic effects of RTX after thermal stimulation and mechanical stimulation. RTX had significant initial transient hyperalgesia followed by a prolonged analgesic effect in response to the thermal stimulus, but the RTX 500ng and RTX 1μg groups showed no initial short-term thermal hyperalgesic responses when pretreated with clonidine. The Cl+RTX 1μg ratsʼ behavior scores indicated that they were more calm and comfortable compared to the RTX 1μg rats. Even though we cannot precisely confirm that pretreatment with clonidine potentiates or adds to the analgesic effect of RTX, clonidine pretreatment with epidural RTX eliminated the initial RTX-associated hyperalgesic response and systemic toxicity in this neuropathic pain rat model

    High Mobility in a Stable Transparent Perovskite Oxide

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    We discovered that La-doped BaSnO3 with the perovskite structure has an unprecedentedly high mobility at room temperature while retaining its optical transparency. In single crystals, the mobility reached 320 cm^2(Vs)^-1 at a doping level of 8x10^19 cm^-3, constituting the highest value among wide-band-gap semiconductors. In epitaxial films, the maximum mobility was 70 cm^2(Vs)^-1 at a doping level of 4.4x10^20 cm^-3. We also show that resistance of (Ba,La)SnO3 changes little even after a thermal cycle to 530 Deg. C in air, pointing to an unusual stability of oxygen atoms and great potential for realizing transparent high-frequency, high-power functional devices.Comment: 15 pages, 3 figure

    Expression of VEGF, HGF, IL-6, IL-8, MMP-9, Telomerase in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    ObjectivesThis study investigated the telomerase expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the relationship between the serum level of several soluble factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and matrix metallopeptidase-9 and the clinicopathological features of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).MethodsPeripheral blood samples were collected from 50 HNSCC patients and 15 normal controls. The telomerase activity in the PBMCs was measured by Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocols. The serum levels of the soluble factors were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.ResultsThe expression of telomerase in the PBMCs of HNSCC patients was significantly correlated with the N and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages. The serum VEGF level was significantly higher in the patients with an advanced T stage, N stage and AJCC stage. Serum VEGF was significantly related with the expression of telomerase in the PBMCs. The telomerase expression and the VEGF expression were shown to be independent factors associated with poor survival.ConclusionThe telomerase expression in the PBMCs and the serum VEGF level of HNSCC patients were significantly correlated with the N stage, the AJCC stage and the prognosis

    Prostate Cancer: Added Value of Subtraction Dynamic Imaging in 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a Phased-array Body Coil

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    PURPOSE: To determine the added value of dynamic subtraction magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the localization of prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 21 consecutive patients who underwent MR imaging in 3T unit with a phased-array body coil and then had radical prostatectomy. After T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging, we performed a contrast-enhanced dynamic 3D gradient-echo imaging consisting of pre-contrast, 2 successive early-phased (first imaging was started just after the appearance of contrast material in the aortic bifurcation followed by second imaging 35 seconds after the initiation of first imaging) and one 5-minute delayed post-contrast series. Subtraction of pre- contrast images from corresponding post-contrast images of each phase was performed on the console. RESULTS: On ROC analysis, the overall accuracy (Az value) of dynamic imaging combined with subtraction imaging was higher than T2-weighted imaging (p = 0.001) or conventional dynamic imaging alone (p = 0.074) for localization of cancer foci regardless of their zonal locations. Among pathologically verified 81 lesions, the mean volume of detected lesions with the subtraction images (n = 49, 0.69cm3) was smaller than with T2-weighted images (n = 14, 1.05cm3) or conventional dynamic images (n = 43, 0.71cm3). CONCLUSION: For localization of small prostate cancer, additional subtraction for the dynamic imaging could be superior to both T2-weighted imaging and un-subtracted dynamic imaging.ope
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