125 research outputs found

    Youth Employment And Training Programs: A Review And A Reply

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    Review Of Ends And Means Of Reducing Poverty By R.J. Lampman

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    A Thriving State ? Reading A Private College Budget

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    Maize RNA PolIV affects the expression of genes with nearby TE insertions and has a genome-wide repressive impact on transcription

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    Abstract Background RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is a plant-specific epigenetic process that relies on the RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) for the production of 24 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNA) that guide the cytosine methylation and silencing of genes and transposons. Zea mays RPD1/RMR6 gene encodes the largest subunit of Pol IV and is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs) and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. Results In this study we applied a total RNA-Seq approach to compare the B73 and rpd1/rmr6 leaf transcriptomes. Although previous studies indicated that loss of siRNAs production in RdDM mutants provokes a strong loss of CHH DNA methylation but not massive gene or TEs transcriptional activation in both Arabidopsis and maize, our total RNA-Seq analysis of rpd1/rmr6 transcriptome reveals that loss of Pol IV activity causes a global increase in the transcribed fraction of the maize genome. Our results point to the genes with nearby TE insertions as being the most strongly affected by Pol IV-mediated gene silencing. TEs modulation of nearby gene expression is linked to alternative methylation profiles on gene flanking regions, and these profiles are strictly dependent on specific characteristics of the TE member inserted. Although Pol IV is essential for the biogenesis of siRNAs, the genes with associated siRNA loci are less affected by the pol IV mutation. Conclusions This deep and integrated analysis of gene expression, TEs distribution, smallRNA targeting and DNA methylation levels, reveals that loss of Pol IV activity globally affects genome regulation, pointing at TEs as modulator of nearby gene expression and indicating the existence of multiple level epigenetic silencing mechanisms. Our results also suggest a predominant role of the Pol IV-mediated RdDM pathway in genome dominance regulation, and subgenome stability and evolution in maize

    Heart Valve Tissue Engineering: Concepts, Approaches, Progress, and Challenges

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    Potential applications of tissue engineering in regenerative medicine range from structural tissues to organs with complex function. This review focuses on the engineering of heart valve tissue, a goal which involves a unique combination of biological, engineering, and technological hurdles. We emphasize basic concepts, approaches and methods, progress made, and remaining challenges. To provide a framework for understanding the enabling scientific principles, we first examine the elements and features of normal heart valve functional structure, biomechanics, development, maturation, remodeling, and response to injury. Following a discussion of the fundamental principles of tissue engineering applicable to heart valves, we examine three approaches to achieving the goal of an engineered tissue heart valve: (1) cell seeding of biodegradable synthetic scaffolds, (2) cell seeding of processed tissue scaffolds, and (3) in-vivo repopulation by circulating endogenous cells of implanted substrates without prior in-vitro cell seeding. Lastly, we analyze challenges to the field and suggest future directions for both preclinical and translational (clinical) studies that will be needed to address key regulatory issues for safety and efficacy of the application of tissue engineering and regenerative approaches to heart valves. Although modest progress has been made toward the goal of a clinically useful tissue engineered heart valve, further success and ultimate human benefit will be dependent upon advances in biodegradable polymers and other scaffolds, cellular manipulation, strategies for rebuilding the extracellular matrix, and techniques to characterize and potentially non-invasively assess the speed and quality of tissue healing and remodeling
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