131 research outputs found

    The impact of teacher's self-efficacy and classroom externalising problem behaviors on emotional exhaustion:Between- and within-person associations

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    Teaching can be a challenging profession, which puts teachers at high risk for developing burnout symptoms, such as emotional exhaustion. In this study we aim to investigate the interplay between classroom externalising problem behaviours (as a job demand), teachers’ self-efficacy (as a job resource) and emotional exhaustion over a school year. Conducting three measurements during a school year among 103 Dutch primary education teachers, we examine the sensitivity for, and the individual development of, emotional exhaustion. Findings show that emotional exhaustion, classroom externalising problem behaviours, and teachers’ self-efficacy are stable constructs in teachers. Traditional (between-person) cross-lagged panel models indicate that teachers with low levels of self-efficacy are more likely to develop emotional exhaustion during the school year, compared to their colleagues. We found no evidence that teachers confronted with classroom externalising problem behaviours were more likely to develop emotional exhaustion. Random intercept (within-person) cross-lagged panel models indicate that teachers with high levels of classroom externalising problem behaviours do not show increased emotional exhaustion at a later time point. For self-efficacy and emotional exhaustion, we could not estimate the within-person model due to limited variance in the variables. Implications of these findings and suggestions for further research were discussed

    Effect of Key2Teach on Dutch teachers' relationships with students with externalizing problem behavior:A randomized controlled trial

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    The teacher-student relationship plays an important role in the academic and behavioral development of primary school children with externalizing problem behavior. However, such problem behavior often threatens the quality of the teacher-student relationship. Teacher-focused coaching intervention Key2Teach aims to improve elements of the relationship between teachers and students with externalizing problem behavior and consists of two phases and four building blocks. This intervention provides primary school teachers with insight into their mental representation of the relationship and opportunities to practice functional interaction skills. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), effects of Key2Teach on different aspects of the relationship between teachers and students with externalizing problem behavior were examined. In two cohorts, 103 dyads consisting of a teacher and a student with externalizing problem behavior in grades 3-6 were assessed three times during a school year. Fifty-three dyads received the intervention (intervention group), whereas 50 dyads received no intervention (control group). Data were collected on teacher-reported teacher-student closeness and conflict, and on teacher interaction skills in various domains. Results show a significant increase in closeness and a decrease in conflict as a result of Key2Teach, with substantial effect sizes. No effects on teacher interaction skills were found. This study indicates that Key2Teach may help teachers to improve elements of the relationship they have with students with externalizing problem behavior. Implications for practice and future research are discussed

    Swift XRT Observations of the Afterglow of XRF 050416A

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    Swift discovered XRF 050416A with the BAT and began observing it with its narrow field instruments only 64.5 s after the burst onset. Its very soft spectrum classifies this event as an X-ray flash. The afterglow X-ray emission was monitored up to 74 days after the burst. The X-ray light curve initially decays very fast, subsequently flattens and eventually steepens again, similar to many X-ray afterglows. The first and second phases end about 172 and 1450 s after the burst onset, respectively. We find evidence of spectral evolution from a softer emission with photon index Gamma ~ 3.0 during the initial steep decay, to a harder emission with Gamma ~ 2.0 during the following evolutionary phases. The spectra show intrinsic absorption in the host galaxy. The consistency of the initial photon index with the high energy BAT photon index suggests that the initial phase of the X-ray light curve may be the low-energy tail of the prompt emission. The lack of jet break signatures in the X-ray afterglow light curve is not consistent with empirical relations between the source rest-frame peak energy and the collimation-corrected energy of the burst. The standard uniform jet model can give a possible description of the XRF 050416A X-ray afterglow for an opening angle larger than a few tens of degrees, although numerical simulations show that the late time decay is slightly flatter than expected from on-axis viewing of a uniform jet. A structured Gaussian-type jet model with uniform Lorentz factor distribution and viewing angle outside the Gaussian core is another possibility, although a full agreement with data is not achieved with the numerical models explored.Comment: Accepted for publication on ApJ; replaced with revised version: part of the discussion moved in an appendix; 11 pages, 6 figures; abstract shortened for posting on astro-p

    CO I Barcoding Reveals New Clades and Radiation Patterns of Indo-Pacific Sponges of the Family Irciniidae (Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida)

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    DNA barcoding is a promising tool to facilitate a rapid and unambiguous identification of sponge species. Demosponges of the order Dictyoceratida are particularly challenging to identify, but are of ecological as well as biochemical importance.Here we apply DNA barcoding with the standard CO1-barcoding marker on selected Indo-Pacific specimens of two genera, Ircinia and Psammocinia of the family Irciniidae. We show that the CO1 marker identifies several species new to science, reveals separate radiation patterns of deep-sea Ircinia sponges and indicates dispersal patterns of Psammocinia species. However, some species cannot be unambiguously barcoded by solely this marker due to low evolutionary rates.We support previous suggestions for a combination of the standard CO1 fragment with an additional fragment for sponge DNA barcoding

    Low-Mass X-ray Binaries and Globular Clusters in Centaurus A

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    We present results of Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of globular clusters (GCs) and low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the central regions of Centaurus A. Out of 440 GC candidates we find that 41 host X-ray point sources that are most likely LMXBs. We fit King models to our GC candidates in order to measure their structural parameters. We find that GCs that host LMXBs are denser and more compact, and have higher encounter rates and concentrations than the GC population as a whole. We show that the higher concentrations and masses are a consequence of the dependence of LMXB incidence on central density and size plus the general trend for denser GCs to have higher masses and concentrations. We conclude that neither concentration nor mass are fundamental variables in determining the presence of LMXBs in GCs, and that the more fundamental parameters relate to central density and size.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. Accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    Wait Up!: Attachment and Sovereign Power.

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    Sociologists and feminist scholars have, over many decades, characterised attachment as a social construction that functions to support political and gender conservatism. We accept that attachment theory has seen use to these ends and consider recent deployments of attachment theory as justification for a minimal State within conservative political discourse in the UK since 2009. However, we contest that attachment is reducible to its discursive construction. We consider Judith Butler's depiction of the infant attached to an abusive caregiver as a foundation and parallel to the position of the adult citizen subjected to punitive cultural norms and political institutions. We develop and qualify Butler's account, drawing on the insights offered by the work of Lauren Berlant. We also return to Foucault's Psychiatric Power lectures, in which familial relations are situated as an island of sovereign power within the sea of modern disciplinary institutions. These reflections help advance analysis of three important issues: the social and political implications of attachment research; the relationship between disciplinary and sovereign power in the affective dynamic of subjection; and the political and ethical status of professional activity within the psy disciplines.This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10767-014-9192-

    DW-MRI as a Biomarker to Compare Therapeutic Outcomes in Radiotherapy Regimens Incorporating Temozolomide or Gemcitabine in Glioblastoma

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    The effectiveness of the radiosensitizer gemcitabine (GEM) was evaluated in a mouse glioma along with the imaging biomarker diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for early detection of treatment effects. A genetically engineered murine GBM model [Ink4a-Arf−/− PtenloxP/loxP/Ntv-a RCAS/PDGF(+)/Cre(+)] was treated with gemcitabine (GEM), temozolomide (TMZ) +/− ionizing radiation (IR). Therapeutic efficacy was quantified by contrast-enhanced MRI and DW-MRI for growth rate and tumor cellularity, respectively. Mice treated with GEM, TMZ and radiation showed a significant reduction in growth rates as early as three days post-treatment initiation. Both combination treatments (GEM/IR and TMZ/IR) resulted in improved survival over single therapies. Tumor diffusion values increased prior to detectable changes in tumor volume growth rates following administration of therapies. Concomitant GEM/IR and TMZ/IR was active and well tolerated in this GBM model and similarly prolonged median survival of tumor bearing mice. DW-MRI provided early changes to radiosensitization treatment warranting evaluation of this imaging biomarker in clinical trials

    [Comment] Redefine statistical significance

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    The lack of reproducibility of scientific studies has caused growing concern over the credibility of claims of new discoveries based on “statistically significant” findings. There has been much progress toward documenting and addressing several causes of this lack of reproducibility (e.g., multiple testing, P-hacking, publication bias, and under-powered studies). However, we believe that a leading cause of non-reproducibility has not yet been adequately addressed: Statistical standards of evidence for claiming discoveries in many fields of science are simply too low. Associating “statistically significant” findings with P < 0.05 results in a high rate of false positives even in the absence of other experimental, procedural and reporting problems. For fields where the threshold for defining statistical significance is P<0.05, we propose a change to P<0.005. This simple step would immediately improve the reproducibility of scientific research in many fields. Results that would currently be called “significant” but do not meet the new threshold should instead be called “suggestive.” While statisticians have known the relative weakness of using P≈0.05 as a threshold for discovery and the proposal to lower it to 0.005 is not new (1, 2), a critical mass of researchers now endorse this change. We restrict our recommendation to claims of discovery of new effects. We do not address the appropriate threshold for confirmatory or contradictory replications of existing claims. We also do not advocate changes to discovery thresholds in fields that have already adopted more stringent standards (e.g., genomics and high-energy physics research; see Potential Objections below). We also restrict our recommendation to studies that conduct null hypothesis significance tests. We have diverse views about how best to improve reproducibility, and many of us believe that other ways of summarizing the data, such as Bayes factors or other posterior summaries based on clearly articulated model assumptions, are preferable to P-values. However, changing the P-value threshold is simple and might quickly achieve broad acceptance

    Amygdala 14-3-3ζ as a Novel Modulator of Escalating Alcohol Intake in Mice

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    Alcoholism is a devastating brain disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. The development of alcoholism is caused by alcohol-induced maladaptive changes in neural circuits involved in emotions, motivation, and decision-making. Because of its involvement in these processes, the amygdala is thought to be a key neural structure involved in alcohol addiction. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the development of alcoholism are incompletely understood. We have previously shown that in a limited access choice paradigm, C57BL/6J mice progressively escalate their alcohol intake and display important behavioral characteristic of alcohol addiction, in that they become insensitive to quinine-induced adulteration of alcohol. This study used the limited access choice paradigm to study gene expression changes in the amygdala during the escalation to high alcohol consumption in C57BL/6J mice. Microarray analysis revealed that changes in gene expression occurred predominantly after one week, i.e. during the initial escalation of alcohol intake. One gene that stood out from our analysis was the adapter protein 14-3-3ζ, which was up-regulated during the transition from low to high alcohol intake. Independent qPCR analysis confirmed the up-regulation of amygdala 14-3-3ζ during the escalation of alcohol intake. Subsequently, we found that local knockdown of 14-3-3ζ in the amygdala, using RNA interference, dramatically augmented alcohol intake. In addition, knockdown of amygdala 14-3-3ζ promoted the development of inflexible alcohol drinking, as apparent from insensitivity to quinine adulteration of alcohol. This study identifies amygdala 14-3-3ζ as a novel key modulator that is engaged during escalation of alcohol use

    Assessing interactions between the associations of common genetic susceptibility variants, reproductive history and body mass index with breast cancer risk in the breast cancer association consortium: a combined case-control study.

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    INTRODUCTION: Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: We evaluated two-way interactions between each of age at menarche, ever having had a live birth, number of live births, age at first birth and body mass index (BMI) and each of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (10q26-rs2981582 (FGFR2), 8q24-rs13281615, 11p15-rs3817198 (LSP1), 5q11-rs889312 (MAP3K1), 16q12-rs3803662 (TOX3), 2q35-rs13387042, 5p12-rs10941679 (MRPS30), 17q23-rs6504950 (COX11), 3p24-rs4973768 (SLC4A7), CASP8-rs17468277, TGFB1-rs1982073 and ESR1-rs3020314). Interactions were tested for by fitting logistic regression models including per-allele and linear trend main effects for SNPs and risk factors, respectively, and single-parameter interaction terms for linear departure from independent multiplicative effects. RESULTS: These analyses were applied to data for up to 26,349 invasive breast cancer cases and up to 32,208 controls from 21 case-control studies. No statistical evidence of interaction was observed beyond that expected by chance. Analyses were repeated using data from 11 population-based studies, and results were very similar. CONCLUSIONS: The relative risks for breast cancer associated with the common susceptibility variants identified to date do not appear to vary across women with different reproductive histories or body mass index (BMI). The assumption of multiplicative combined effects for these established genetic and other risk factors in risk prediction models appears justified.RIGHTS : This article is licensed under the BioMed Central licence at http://www.biomedcentral.com/about/license which is similar to the 'Creative Commons Attribution Licence'. In brief you may : copy, distribute, and display the work; make derivative works; or make commercial use of the work - under the following conditions: the original author must be given credit; for any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are
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