2,297 research outputs found

    Corrigendum : Competition between hydrogen and halogen bonding in halogenated 1-methyluracil:water systems

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    This article corrects: Competition between hydrogen and halogen bonding in halogenated 1-methyluracil:water systems, Volume 37, Issue 8, 763-770. Article first published online: 15 January 2016.PostprintPeer reviewe

    Framing or Gaming? Constructing a Study to Explore the Impact of Option Presentation on Consumers

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    The manner in which choice is framed influences individuals’ decision-making. This research examines the impact of different decision constructs on decision-making by focusing on the more problematic decision constructs: the un-selected and pre-selected optout. The study employs eye-tracking with cued retrospective think-aloud (RTA) to combine quantitative and qualitative data. Eye-tracking will determine how long a user focuses on a decision construct before taking action. Cued RTA where the user will be shown a playback of their interaction will be used to explore their attitudes towards a decision construct and identify problematic designs. This pilot begins the second of a three phase study, which ultimately aims to develop a research model containing the theoretical constructs along with hypothesized causal associations between the constructs to reveal the impact of measures such as decision construct type, default value type and question framing have on the perceived value of the website and loyalty intentions

    Utility of COVID-19 antigen testing in the emergency department

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    Background: The BinaxNOW coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Ag Card test (Abbott Diagnostics Scarborough, Inc.) is a lateral flow immunochromatographic point-of-care test for the qualitative detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid protein antigen. It provides results from nasal swabs in 15 minutes. Our purpose was to determine its sensitivity and specificity for a COVID-19 diagnosis. Methods: Eligible patients had symptoms of COVID-19 or suspected exposure. After consent, 2 nasal swabs were collected; 1 was tested using the Abbott RealTime SARS-CoV-2 (ie, the gold standard polymerase chain reaction test) and the second run on the BinaxNOW point of care platform by emergency department staff. Results: From July 20 to October 28, 2020, 767 patients were enrolled, of which 735 had evaluable samples. Their mean (SD) age was 46.8 (16.6) years, and 422 (57.4%) were women. A total of 623 (84.8%) patients had COVID-19 symptoms, most commonly shortness of breath (n = 404; 55.0%), cough (n = 314; 42.7%), and fever (n = 253; 34.4%). Although 460 (62.6%) had symptoms ≤7 days, the mean (SD) time since symptom onset was 8.1 (14.0) days. Positive tests occurred in 173 (23.5%) and 141 (19.2%) with the gold standard versus BinaxNOW test, respectively. Those with symptoms \u3e2 weeks had a positive test rate roughly half of those with earlier presentations. In patients with symptoms ≤7 days, the sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values for the BinaxNOW test were 84.6%, 98.5%, 94.9%, and 95.2%, respectively. Conclusions: The BinaxNOW point-of-care test has good sensitivity and excellent specificity for the detection of COVID-19. We recommend using the BinasNOW for patients with symptoms up to 2 weeks

    Military Retention Incentives: Evidence from the Air Force Selective Reenlistment Bonus

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    The limited lateral entry and rigid pay structure for U.S. military personnel present challenges in retaining skilled individuals who have attractive options in the civilian labor market. One tool the services use to address this challenge is the Selective Reenlistment Bonus (SRB), which offers eligible personnel with particular skills a substantial cash bonus upon reenlistment. However, the sequential nature of the bonus offer and reenlistment process limits the ability to adjust manpower quickly, raising interest in research that estimates the effect of the SRB on retention. While this literature has acknowledged challenges including potential endogeneity of bonus levels, attrition, and reenlistment eligibility, many studies do not address these concerns adequately. This paper uses a comprehensive panel data set on Air Force enlisted personnel to estimate the effect of the SRB on retention rates. We exploit variation in bonus levels within skill groups, control for civilian labor market conditions, and model reenlistment eligibility to avoid common assumptions that lead to biased impact estimates. We find substantial heterogeneity in the effect of the bonus, with the largest effects on first-term service members and those whose skills have not historically received a substantial bonus. We also find evidence that the bonus affects the timing of reenlistment decisions in addition to their frequency

    The Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

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    This paper describes the Fifth Data Release (DR5) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). DR5 includes all survey quality data taken through June 2005 and represents the completion of the SDSS-I project (whose successor, SDSS-II will continue through mid-2008). It includes five-band photometric data for 217 million objects selected over 8000 square degrees, and 1,048,960 spectra of galaxies, quasars, and stars selected from 5713 square degrees of that imaging data. These numbers represent a roughly 20% increment over those of the Fourth Data Release; all the data from previous data releases are included in the present release. In addition to "standard" SDSS observations, DR5 includes repeat scans of the southern equatorial stripe, imaging scans across M31 and the core of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, and the first spectroscopic data from SEGUE, a survey to explore the kinematics and chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The catalog database incorporates several new features, including photometric redshifts of galaxies, tables of matched objects in overlap regions of the imaging survey, and tools that allow precise computations of survey geometry for statistical investigations.Comment: ApJ Supp, in press, October 2007. This paper describes DR5. The SDSS Sixth Data Release (DR6) is now public, available from http://www.sdss.or

    The p.M292T NDUFS2 mutation causes complex I-deficient Leigh syndrome in multiple families

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    Isolated complex I deficiency is the most frequently observed oxidative phosphorylation defect in children with mitochondrial disease, leading to a diverse range of clinical presentations, including Leigh syndrome. For most patients the genetic cause of the biochemical defect remains unknown due to incomplete understanding of the complex I assembly process. Nonetheless, a plethora of pathogenic mutations have been described to date in the seven mitochondrial-encoded subunits of complex I as well as in 12 of the nuclear-encoded subunits and in six assembly factors. Whilst several mitochondrial DNA mutations are recurrent, the majority of these mutations are reported in single families. We have sequenced core structural and functional nuclear-encoded subunits of complex I in a cohort of 34 paediatric patients with isolated complex I deficiency, identifying pathogenic mutations in 6 patients. These included a novel homozygous NDUFS1 mutation in an Asian child with Leigh syndrome, a previously identified NDUFS8 mutation (c.236C>T, p.P79L) in a second Asian child with Leigh-like syndrome and six novel, compound heterozygous NDUFS2 mutations in four white Caucasian patients with Leigh or Leigh-like syndrome. Three of these children harboured an identical NDUFS2 mutation (c.875T>C, p.M292T), which was also identified in conjunction with a novel NDUFS2 splice site mutation (c.866+4A>G) in a fourth Caucasian child who presented to a different diagnostic centre, with microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism analyses indicating that this was due to an ancient common founder event. Our results confirm that NDUFS2 is a mutational hotspot in Caucasian children with isolated complex I deficiency and recommend the routine diagnostic investigation of this gene in patients with Leigh or Leigh-like phenotypes

    The Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

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    This paper describes the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), marking the completion of the original goals of the SDSS and the end of the phase known as SDSS-II. It includes 11663 deg^2 of imaging data, with most of the roughly 2000 deg^2 increment over the previous data release lying in regions of low Galactic latitude. The catalog contains five-band photometry for 357 million distinct objects. The survey also includes repeat photometry over 250 deg^2 along the Celestial Equator in the Southern Galactic Cap. A coaddition of these data goes roughly two magnitudes fainter than the main survey. The spectroscopy is now complete over a contiguous area of 7500 deg^2 in the Northern Galactic Cap, closing the gap that was present in previous data releases. There are over 1.6 million spectra in total, including 930,000 galaxies, 120,000 quasars, and 460,000 stars. The data release includes improved stellar photometry at low Galactic latitude. The astrometry has all been recalibrated with the second version of the USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC-2), reducing the rms statistical errors at the bright end to 45 milli-arcseconds per coordinate. A systematic error in bright galaxy photometr is less severe than previously reported for the majority of galaxies. Finally, we describe a series of improvements to the spectroscopic reductions, including better flat-fielding and improved wavelength calibration at the blue end, better processing of objects with extremely strong narrow emission lines, and an improved determination of stellar metallicities. (Abridged)Comment: 20 pages, 10 embedded figures. Accepted to ApJS after minor correction

    Complications and pitfalls of lumbar interlaminar and transforaminal epidural injections

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    Lumbar interlaminar and transforaminal epidural injections are used in the treatment of lumbar radicular pain and other lumbar spinal pain syndromes. Complications from these procedures arise from needle placement and the administration of medication. Potential risks include infection, hematoma, intravascular injection of medication, direct nerve trauma, subdural injection of medication, air embolism, disc entry, urinary retention, radiation exposure, and hypersensitivity reactions. The objective of this article is to review the complications of lumbar interlaminar and transforaminal epidural injections and discuss the potential pitfalls related to these procedures. We performed a comprehensive literature review through a Medline search for relevant case reports, clinical trials, and review articles. Complications from lumbar epidural injections are extremely rare. Most if not all complications can be avoided by careful technique with accurate needle placement, sterile precautions, and a thorough understanding of the relevant anatomy and contrast patterns on fluoroscopic imaging

    Glutamate receptor-like channels are essential for chemotaxis and reproduction in mosses

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    The deposited article version is a "Accelerated Article Preview" provided by Nature Publishing Group, and it contains attached the supplementary materials within the pdf.». This publication hasn't any creative commons license associated.Glutamate receptors are well characterized channels that mediate cell-to-cell communication during neurotransmission in animals. Nevertheless, information regarding their functional role in organisms without nervous systems is still limited. In plants, Glutamate Receptor-like (GLR) genes have been implicated in defence against pathogens, reproduction, control of stomata aperture and light signal transduction(1-5). However, the numerous GLR genes present in angiosperm genomes (20 to 70)(6) has prevented the observation of strong phenotypes in loss-of-function mutants. Here, we show that in the moss Physcomitrella patens, a basal land plant, mutation of GLR genes cause sperm failure in targeting the female reproductive organs. In addition, we show that GLR genes encode non-selective Ca(2+) permeable channels that can regulate cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and are needed to induce the expression of a BELL1-like transcription factor essential for zygote development. Our work reveals novel functions for GLRs in sperm chemotaxis and transcriptional regulation. Sperm chemotaxis is essential for fertilization in both animals and early land plants like bryophytes and pteridophytes. Therefore, our results are suggestive that ionotropic glutamate receptors may have been conserved throughout plant evolution to mediate cell-to-cell communication during sexual reproduction.Phillips University; Oxford University; University of Marburg; University of Muenster; MarieCurie ITN-Plant Origins grant: (FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008); FCT grants: (BEX-BCM/0376/2012; PTDC/BIA-PLA/4018/2012); NSF-US grant: (MCB 1616437/2016).info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersio

    The Yeast La Related Protein Slf1p Is a Key Activator of Translation during the Oxidative Stress Response

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    The mechanisms by which RNA-binding proteins control the translation of subsets of mRNAs are not yet clear. Slf1p and Sro9p are atypical-La motif containing proteins which are members of a superfamily of RNA-binding proteins conserved in eukaryotes. RIP-Seq analysis of these two yeast proteins identified overlapping and distinct sets of mRNA targets, including highly translated mRNAs such as those encoding ribosomal proteins. In paralell, transcriptome analysis of slf1Δ and sro9Δ mutant strains indicated altered gene expression in similar functional classes of mRNAs following loss of each factor. The loss of SLF1 had a greater impact on the transcriptome, and in particular, revealed changes in genes involved in the oxidative stress response. slf1Δ cells are more sensitive to oxidants and RIP-Seq analysis of oxidatively stressed cells enriched Slf1p targets encoding antioxidants and other proteins required for oxidant tolerance. To quantify these effects at the protein level, we used label-free mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of wild-type and slf1Δ strains following oxidative stress. This analysis identified several proteins which are normally induced in response to hydrogen peroxide, but where this increase is attenuated in the slf1Δ mutant. Importantly, a significant number of the mRNAs encoding these targets were also identified as Slf1p-mRNA targets. We show that Slf1p remains associated with the few translating ribosomes following hydrogen peroxide stress and that Slf1p co-immunoprecipitates ribosomes and members of the eIF4E/eIF4G/Pab1p ‘closed loop’ complex suggesting that Slf1p interacts with actively translated mRNAs following stress. Finally, mutational analysis of SLF1 revealed a novel ribosome interacting domain in Slf1p, independent of its RNA binding La-motif. Together, our results indicate that Slf1p mediates a translational response to oxidative stress via mRNA-specific translational control
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