26,653 research outputs found

    Photons as signature for dark matter and dark energy: The Cast experiment at CERN

    Get PDF
    The CAST experiment is designed to search for solar axions which are produced in the dense plasma the interior of the sun via the Primakoff effect. Detection of axions and their energy spectrum will immediately reveal the temperature of the core plasma. The central part of the experiment, the helioscope is an LHC prototype magnet that has attached different types of sensitive detectors for x-rays in the regime of 1-10 keV..

    Photons as signature for dark matter and dark energy: The Cast experiment at CERN

    Get PDF
    The CAST experiment is designed to search for solar axions which are produced in the dense plasma the interior of the sun via the Primakoff effect. Detection of axions and their energy spectrum will immediately reveal the temperature of the core plasma. The central part of the experiment, the helioscope is an LHC prototype magnet that has attached different types of sensitive detectors for x-rays in the regime of 1-10 keV..

    A study of the factors affecting boundary layer two-dimensionality in wind tunnels

    Get PDF
    The effect of screens, honeycombs, and centrifugal blowers on the two-dimensionality of a boundary layer on the test section floors of low-speed blower tunnels is studied. Surveys of the spanwise variation in surface shear stress in three blower tunnels revealed that the main component responsible for altering the spanwise properties of the test section boundary layer was the last screen, thus confirming previous findings. It was further confirmed that a screen with varying open-area ratio, produced an unstable flow. However, contrary to popular belief, it was also found that for given incoming conditions and a screen free of imperfections, its open-area ratio alone was not enough to describe its performance. The effect of other geometric parameters such as the type of screen, honeycomb, and blower were investigated. In addition, the effect of the order of components in the settling chamber, and of wire Reynolds number were also studied

    Studies on the bit rate requirements for a HDTV format with 1920 timestimes 1080 pixel resolution, progressive scanning at 50 Hz frame rate targeting large flat panel displays

    Get PDF
    This paper considers the potential for an HDTV delivery format with 1920 times 1080 pixels progressive scanning and 50 frames per second in broadcast applications. The paper discusses the difficulties in characterizing the display to be assumed for reception. It elaborates on the required bit rate of the 1080p/50 format when critical content is coded in MPEG-4 H.264 AVC Part 10 and subjectively viewed on a large, flat panel display with 1920 times 1080 pixel resolution. The paper describes the initial subjective quality evaluations that have been made in these conditions. The results of these initial tests suggest that the required bit-rate for a 1080p/50 HDTV signal in emission could be kept equal or lower than that of 2nd generation HDTV formats, to achieve equal or better image qualit

    A novel method for subjective picture quality assessment and further studies of HDTV formats

    Get PDF
    This is the author's accepted manuscript. The final published article is available from the link below. Copyright @ IEEE 2008.This paper proposes a novel method for the assessment of picture quality, called triple stimulus continuous evaluation scale (TSCES), to allow the direct comparison of different HDTV formats. The method uses an upper picture quality anchor and a lower picture quality anchor with defined impairments. The HDTV format under test is evaluated in a subjective comparison with the upper and lower anchors. The method utilizes three displays in a particular vertical arrangement. In an initial series of tests with the novel method, the HDTV formats 1080p/50,1080i/25, and 720p/50 were compared at various bit-rates and with seven different content types on three identical 1920 times 1080 pixel displays. It was found that the new method provided stable and consistent results. The method was tested with 1080p/50,1080i/25, and 720p/50 HDTV images that had been coded with H.264/AVC High profile. The result of the assessment was that the progressive HDTV formats found higher appreciation by the assessors than the interlaced HDTV format. A system chain proposal is given for future media production and delivery to take advantage of this outcome. Recommendations for future research conclude the paper

    KWISP: an ultra-sensitive force sensor for the Dark Energy sector

    Get PDF
    An ultra-sensitive opto-mechanical force sensor has been built and tested in the optics laboratory at INFN Trieste. Its application to experiments in the Dark Energy sector, such as those for Chameleon-type WISPs, is particularly attractive, as it enables a search for their direct coupling to matter. We present here the main characteristics and the absolute force calibration of the KWISP (Kinetic WISP detection) sensor. It is based on a thin Si3N4 micro-membrane placed inside a Fabry-Perot optical cavity. By monitoring the cavity characteristic frequencies it is possible to detect the tiny membrane displacements caused by an applied force. Far from the mechanical resonant frequency of the membrane, the measured force sensitivity is 5.0e-14 N/sqrt(Hz), corresponding to a displacement sensitivity of 2.5e-15 m/sqrt(Hz), while near resonance the sensitivity is 1.5e-14 N/sqrt(Hz), reaching the estimated thermal limit, or, in terms of displacement, 7.5e-16 N/sqrt(Hz). These displacement sensitivities are comparable to those that can be achieved by large interferometric gravitational wave detectors.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figures in colo

    Effect of Sensory Feedback from the Proximal Upper Limb on Voluntary Isometric Finger Flexion and Extension in Hemiparetic Stroke Subjects

    Get PDF
    This study investigated the potential influence of proximal sensory feedback on voluntary distal motor activity in the paretic upper limb of hemiparetic stroke survivors and the potential effect of voluntary distal motor activity on proximal muscle activity. Ten stroke subjects and 10 neurologically intact control subjects performed maximum voluntary isometric flexion and extension, respectively, at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of the fingers in two static arm postures and under three conditions of electrical stimulation of the arm. The tasks were quantified in terms of maximum MCP torque [MCP flexion (MCPflex) or MCP extension (MCPext)] and activity of targeted (flexor digitorum superficialis or extensor digitorum communis) and nontargeted upper limb muscles. From a previous study on the MCP stretch reflex poststroke, we expected stroke subjects to exhibit a modulation of voluntary MCP torque production by arm posture and electrical stimulation and increased nontargeted muscle activity. Posture 1 (flexed elbow, neutral shoulder) led to greater MCPflex in stroke subjects than posture 2 (extended elbow, flexed shoulder). Electrical stimulation did not influence MCPflex or MCPext in either subject group. In stroke subjects, posture 1 led to greater nontargeted upper limb flexor activity during MCPflex and to greater elbow flexor and extensor activity during MCPext. Stroke subjects exhibited greater elbow flexor activity during MCPflex and greater elbow flexor and extensor activity during MCPext than control subjects. The results suggest that static arm posture can modulate voluntary distal motor activity and accompanying muscle activity in the paretic upper limb poststroke

    On Hasse--Schmidt derivations: the action of substitution maps

    Get PDF
    We study the action of substitution maps between power series rings as an additional algebraic structure on the groups of Hasse--Schmidt derivations. This structure appears as a counterpart of the module structure on classical derivations.Comment: 42 pages; Dedicated to Antonio Campillo on the occasion of his 65th birthday; minor corrections; final versio

    Detecting solar chameleons through radiation pressure

    Get PDF
    Light scalar fields can drive the accelerated expansion of the universe. Hence, they are obvious dark energy candidates. To make such models compatible with tests of General Relativity in the solar system and "fifth force" searches on Earth, one needs to screen them. One possibility is the so-called "chameleon" mechanism, which renders an effective mass depending on the local matter density. If chameleon particles exist, they can be produced in the sun and detected on Earth exploiting the equivalent of a radiation pressure. Since their effective mass scales with the local matter density, chameleons can be reflected by a dense medium if their effective mass becomes greater than their total energy. Thus, under appropriate conditions, a flux of solar chameleons may be sensed by detecting the total instantaneous momentum transferred to a suitable opto-mechanical force/pressure sensor. We calculate the solar chameleon spectrum and the reach in the chameleon parameter space of an experiment using the preliminary results from a force/pressure sensor, currently under development at INFN Trieste, to be mounted in the focal plane of one of the X-Ray telescopes of the CAST experiment at CERN. We show, that such an experiment signifies a pioneering effort probing uncharted chameleon parameter space.Comment: revised versio

    Quantification of antithrombin isoform proportions in plasma samples of healthy subjects, sepsis patients, and in antithrombin concentrates

    Get PDF
    Antithrombin (AT) circulates in plasma in two isoforms, AT-alpha (90-95%) and AT-beta (5-10%). AT isoform proportions were measured in plasma samples of 17 healthy subjects and 26 posttraumatic or postoperative septic patients, as well as in 4 commercially available AT concentrates. Total AT was immune-purified from plasma and concentrates. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography was used to analytically separate and quantify the isoforms. Compared with plasma samples of healthy donors, septic plasmas revealed significantly reduced AT activity (p < 0.001) and beta-isoform content (p < 0.05). AT-beta correlated inversely with urea and creatinine serum concentrations (p < 0.01), indicating a relationship between better renal function and higher beta-isoform content. beta-Isoform neither correlated with age, gender, and 28-day mortality, nor with plasma concentrations of various inflammatory and organ function parameters. The commercial AT concentrate, which is equivalent to the current WHO standard, had an AT-beta content close to that found in plasma of healthy subjects. The availability of this novel quantitative AT isoform assay allows, for the first time, a closer look at the role of AT isoforms in hemostasis and sepsis pathophysiology. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
    corecore