77 research outputs found

    Seventy-five mosses and liverworts found frozen with the late Neolithic Tyrolean Iceman: Origins, taphonomy and the Iceman’s last journey

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    The Iceman site is unique in the bryology of the Quaternary. Only 21 bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) grow now in the immediate vicinity of the 5,300 year old Iceman discovery site at 3,210m above sea level in the Ötztal Alps, Italy. By contrast 75 or more species including at least ten liverworts were recovered as subfossils frozen in, on and around the Iceman from before, at and after his time. About two thirds of the species grow in the nival zone (above 3,000m above sea level) now while about one third do not. A large part of this third can be explained by the Iceman having both deliberately and inadvertently carried bryophytes during his last, fatal journey. Multivariate analyses (PCA, RDA) provide a variety of explanations for the arrivals of the bryophytes in the rocky hollow where the mummy was discovered. This is well into the nival zone of perennial snow and ice with a very sparse, non-woody flora and very low vegetation cover. Apart from the crucial anthropochory (extra-local plants), both hydrochory (local species) and zoochory (by wild game such as ibex of both local and extra-local species) have been important. Anemochory of mainly local species was of lesser importance and of extra-local species probably of little or no importance. The mosses Neckera complanata and several other ecologically similar species as well as a species of Sphagnum (bogmoss) strongly support the claim that the Iceman, took northwards up Schnalstal, South Tyrol, as the route of the last journey. A different species of bogmoss, taken from his colon is another indication the Iceman’s presence at low altitude south of Schnalstal during his last hours when he was first high up, low down and finally at over 3,000m

    Doves and hawks in economics revisited. An evolutionary quantum game theory-based analysis of financial crises

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    The last financial and economic crisis demonstrated the dysfunctional long-term effects of aggressive behaviour in financial markets. Yet, evolutionary game theory predicts that under the condition of strategic dependence a certain degree of aggressive behaviour remains within a given population of agents. However, as the consequences of the financial crisis exhibit, it would be desirable to change the 'rules of the game' in a way that prevents the occurrence of any aggressive behaviour and thereby also the danger of market crashes. The paper picks up this aspect. Through the extension of the in literature well-known Hawk-Dove game by a quantum approach, we can show that dependent on entanglement, also evolutionary stable strategies can emerge, which are not predicted by classical evolutionary game theory and where the total economic population uses a non aggressive quantum strategy

    Immunometabolic Markers in a Small Patient Cohort Undergoing Immunotherapy

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    Although the discovery of immune checkpoints was hailed as a major breakthrough in can cer therapy, generating a sufficient response to immunotherapy is still limited. Thus, the objective of this exploratory, hypothesis-generating study was to identify potentially novel peripheral biomarkers and discuss the possible predictive relevance of combining scarcely investigated metabolic and hor monal markers with immune subsets. Sixteen markers that differed significantly between responders and non-responders were identified. In a further step, the correlation with progression-free survival (PFS) and false discovery correction (Benjamini and Hochberg) revealed potential predictive roles for the immune subset absolute lymphocyte count (rs = 0.51; p = 0.0224 *), absolute basophil count (rs = 0.43; p = 0.04 *), PD-1+ monocytes (rs = −0.49; p = 0.04 *), hemoglobin (rs = 0.44; p = 0.04 *), metabolic markers LDL (rs = 0.53; p = 0.0224 *), free androgen index (rs = 0.57; p = 0.0224 *) and CRP (rs = −0.46; p = 0.0352 *). The absolute lymphocyte count, LDL and free androgen index were the most significant individual markers, and combining the immune subsets with the metabolic markers into a biomarker ratio enhanced correlation with PFS (rs = −0.74; p ≀ 0.0001 ****). In summary, in addition to well-established markers, we identified PD-1+ monocytes and the free androgen index as potentially novel peripheral markers in the context of immunotherapy. Furthermore, the combination of immune subsets with metabolic and hormonal markers may have the potential to enhance the power of future predictive scores and should, therefore, be investigated further in larger trials

    Hybridization of a RoR HPP with a BESS—The XFLEX HYDRO Vogelgrun Demonstrator

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    In the XFLEX HYDRO Vogelgrun demonstrator, a run-of-river hydropower plant, the hybridization of one turbine-generator unit with a battery energy storage system is being investigated. This paper describes the integration methodology of the hybrid control algorithm without replacing the existing speed governor of the unit. Furthermore, the comparison of the performances of a non-hybrid and hybrid unit is discussed, and first experiences gained during the operation and monitoring of the hybrid operating mode are presented.This work has been realized with the participation of INES.2S. David ValentĂ­n and Alexandre Presas acknowledge the Serra HĂșnter program. The corresponding author would like to express his gratitude to Nicolas Ruchonnet for his contributions during the revision.Postprint (published version

    Low-density lipoprotein balances T cell metabolism and enhances response to anti-PD-1 blockade in a HCT116 spheroid model

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    IntroductionThe discovery of immune checkpoints and the development of their specific inhibitors was acclaimed as a major breakthrough in cancer therapy. However, only a limited patient cohort shows sufficient response to therapy. Hence, there is a need for identifying new checkpoints and predictive biomarkers with the objective of overcoming immune escape and resistance to treatment. Having been associated with both, treatment response and failure, LDL seems to be a double-edged sword in anti-PD1 immunotherapy. Being embedded into complex metabolic conditions, the impact of LDL on distinct immune cells has not been sufficiently addressed. Revealing the effects of LDL on T cell performance in tumor immunity may enable individual treatment adjustments in order to enhance the response to routinely administered immunotherapies in different patient populations. The object of this work was to investigate the effect of LDL on T cell activation and tumor immunity in-vitro. MethodsExperiments were performed with different LDL dosages (LDLlow = 50 ÎŒg/ml and LDLhigh = 200 ÎŒg/ml) referring to medium control. T cell phenotype, cytokines and metabolism were analyzed. The functional relevance of our findings was studied in a HCT116 spheroid model in the context of anti-PD-1 blockade.ResultsThe key points of our findings showed that LDLhigh skewed the CD4+ T cell subset into a central memory-like phenotype, enhanced the expression of the co-stimulatory marker CD154 (CD40L) and significantly reduced secretion of IL-10. The exhaustion markers PD-1 and LAG-3 were downregulated on both T cell subsets and phenotypical changes were associated with a balanced T cell metabolism, in particular with a significant decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS). T cell transfer into a HCT116 spheroid model resulted in a significant reduction of the spheroid viability in presence of an anti-PD-1 antibody combined with LDLhigh.DiscussionFurther research needs to be conducted to fully understand the impact of LDL on T cells in tumor immunity and moreover, to also unravel LDL effects on other lymphocytes and myeloid cells for improving anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. The reason for improved response might be a resilient, less exhausted phenotype with balanced ROS levels

    Prevalence and incidence of iron deficiency in European community-dwelling older adults : An observational analysis of the DO-HEALTH trial

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    Background and aim Iron deficiency is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in older adults. However, data on its prevalence and incidence among older adults is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and incidence of iron deficiency in European community-dwelling older adults aged ≄ 70 years. Methods Secondary analysis of the DO-HEALTH trial, a 3-year clinical trial including 2157 community-dwelling adults aged ≄ 70 years from Austria, France, Germany, Portugal and Switzerland. Iron deficiency was defined as soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) > 28.1 nmol/L. Prevalence and incidence rate (IR) of iron deficiency per 100 person-years were examined overall and stratified by sex, age group, and country. Sensitivity analysis for three commonly used definitions of iron deficiency (ferritin  1.5) were also performed. Results Out of 2157 participants, 2141 had sTfR measured at baseline (mean age 74.9 years; 61.5% women). The prevalence of iron deficiency at baseline was 26.8%, and did not differ by sex, but by age (35.6% in age group ≄ 80, 29.3% in age group 75–79, 23.2% in age group 70–74); P  1.5. Occurrences of iron deficiency were observed with IR per 100 person-years of 9.2 (95% CI 8.3–10.1) and did not significantly differ by sex or age group. The highest IR per 100 person-years was observed in Austria (20.8, 95% CI 16.1–26.9), the lowest in Germany (6.1, 95% CI 4.7–8.0). Regarding the other definitions of iron deficiency, the IR per 100 person-years was 4.5 (95% CI 4.0–4.9) for ferritin  1.5. Conclusions Iron deficiency is frequent among relatively healthy European older adults, with people aged ≄ 80 years and residence in Austria and Portugal associated with the highest risk

    Participation in and Compliance with Public Voluntary Environmental Programs: An Evolutionary Approach

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    Moderne Regelstrategien fĂŒr Gasmotoren

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    Die Gasmotoren fĂŒr StationĂ€ranwendungen der Firma GE Jenbacher sind ein innovatives Produkt in Hinblick auf Ressourcenverwertung und Umweltfreundlichkeit. Zum einen wĂ€chst der Markt fĂŒr Motoren, die abseits der Stromversorgung elektrische Energie liefern, zum anderen wird die Energiegewinnung aus Abfallprodukten, wie Bio- oder KlĂ€rgasen immer attraktiver.Um die WettbewerbsfĂ€higkeit zu erhalten, mĂŒssen vor allem die RentabiliĂ€t und die RegelgĂŒte laufend verbessert werden. Die Dynamik des Gasmotors ist ĂŒber seinen Leistungsbereich stark nichtlinear. Das liegt vor allem am Turbolader, der erst in höheren Leistungsbereichen die Motorleistung steigert. Da er abgasgetrieben ist, werden zusĂ€tzliche RĂŒckkopplungseffekte wirksam.Der Gasmotor wird mittels zweier Stellglieder, die Drosselklappe und das Umblaseventil des Turboladers, geregelt. Die herkömmliche Regelung sieht jeweils einen PID Regler vor, dessen Parameter von der Leistung abhĂ€ngen. Die Aktuatoren werden gesteuert umgeschalten, um zu vermeiden, dass sie sich durch ihre Wechselwirkung gegenseitig destabilisieren.In dieser Arbeit werden einerseits Möglichkeiten vorgestellt, die RegelgĂŒte durch zusĂ€tzliche Signale, wie den Ladedruck mittels Kaskadenregelung zu steigern. Die Ausregelzeit und Überschwingweite können um 10 % verringert werden, weshalb der Motor ohne bauliche Änderungen eine höhere Klasse erreicht. Gleichzeitig wird der Einstellprozess vereinfacht, weil die Anzahl der Reglerparameter um den Faktor 10 verringert werden kann. Andererseits werden neue Wege vorgeschlagen, um die zwei Aktuatoren optimal miteinander zu verwenden.Dies fordert einen optimierten Reglerentwurf, der wiederum auf ein linearisiertes Modell und einen Beobachter basiert. In Simulationen bringt dies weitere Verbesserungen der RegelgĂŒte in Hinblick auf Ausreglezeit und Überschwingweite.Die Theorie des modellbasierten Kalmanfilters und LQG Reglers wird am Gasmotor angewandt und bis zum PrĂŒfstand umgesetzt. Dazu wird ein Zustandsraummodell des Gasmotors erstellt, das auch linearisiert werden kann. Basierend auf den Erkenntnissen dieser Arbeit können einerseits weitere Stellsignale, wie zum Beispiel die Gaskonzentration in die optimale Regelung eingebunden werden. Andererseits kann durch die Systembeobachtung der Zustand des Motors bewertet und Sensorsignale auf PlausibilitĂ€t geprĂŒft werden.The gas engines for stationary applications of the manufacturer GE Jenbacher are an innovative product concerning the use of ressources and environment. On the one hand, the market for gas engines, that produce electric energy as stand alone systems, grows fast and on the other hand, producing energy from waste products like biological gas gets more attractive.To maintain the competitive advantage, the gas engines must be improved with respect to reliabilty and control performance. The dynamics of a gas engine varies strongly over its power range. The turbocharger boosts the mixture pressure at higher power loads and causes additional feedback effects, because it is exhaust-gas driven. The gas engines are controlled by the throttle valve and the recirculation valve of the turbocharger. They are actuated by a PID controller each, whose parameters vary with the power output.The actuators are switched feed forward to avoid instability due to interactions.On the one hand, possibilities are presented to improve the control performance by using the boost pressure as an additional measurement signal (cascade control). The control duration and the overshoot can be reduced up to 10 %, therefore the gas engines can be sold at a higher class. Also, the adjustment of the controller parameters becomes even easier, the number of controller parameters are reduced by a factor of 10. On the other hand, new methods of controlling the engine by the simultanous use of the two actuators are shown. The optimal control is based on a state feedback controller, which implies an observer and a linear model of the engine. In simulations the control performance can be improved.The theory of the model based Kalmanfilter and the LQG controller is implemented at the gas engine from the scratch to the test bed. The necessary state space model, that can be linearised, is derived. Based on the experiences obtained in this work, additional actuators like the gas concentration can be used. Furthermore the observation of the systems allows to test sensors plausiblity.9