1,794 research outputs found

    Stratospheric aerosol data records for the climate change initiative : Development, validation and application to chemistry-climate modelling

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    This paper presents stratospheric aerosol climate records developed in the framework of the Aerosol_cci project, one of the 14 parallel projects from the ESA Climate Change Initiative. These data records were processed from a stratospheric aerosol dataset derived from the GOMOS experiment, using an inversion algorithm optimized for aerosol retrieval, called AerGOM. They provide a suite of aerosol parameters, such as the aerosol extinction coefficient at different wavelengths in the UV-visible range.The extinction record includes the total extinction as well as separate fields for liquid sulfate aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Several additional fields (PSC flag, etc.) are also provided. The resulting stratospheric aerosol dataset, which spans the whole duration of the GOMOS mission (2002-2012), was validated using different reference datasets (lidar and balloon profiles). In the present paper, the emphasis is put on the extinction records. After a thorough analysis of the original AerGOM dataset, we describe the methodology used to construct the gridded CCI-GOMOS dataset and the resulting improvements on both the AerGOM algorithm and the binning procedure, in terms of spatio-temporal resolution, coverage and data quality. The extinction datasets were validated using lidar profiles from three ground-based stations (Mauna Loa, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Dumont d'Urville). The median difference of the CCI-GOMOS (Level 3) extinction and ground-based lidar profiles is between similar to 15% and similar to 45% in the 16-21 km altitude range, depending on the considered site and aerosol type. The CCI-GOMOS dataset was subsequently used, together with a MIPAS SO2 time series, to update a volcanic eruption inventory published previously, thus providing a more comprehensive list of eruptions for the ENVISAT period (2002-2012). The number of quantified eruptions increases from 102 to 230 in the updated inventory. This new inventory was used to simulate the evolution of the global radiative forcing by application of the EMAC chemistry-climate model. Results of this simulation improve the agreement between modelled global radiative forcing of stratospheric aerosols at about 100 hPa compared to values estimated from observations. Medium eruptions like the ones of Soufriere Hills/Rabaul (2006), Sarychev (2009) and Nabro (2011) cause a forcing change from about -0.1 W/m(2) to -0.2 W/m(2). (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.Peer reviewe

    Aging Studies for the Large Honeycomb Drift Tube System of the Outer Tracker of HERA-B

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    The HERA-B Outer Tracker consists of drift tubes folded from polycarbonate foil and is operated with Ar/CF4/CO2 as drift gas. The detector has to stand radiation levels which are similar to LHC conditions. The first prototypes exposed to radiation in HERA-B suffered severe radiation damage due to the development of self-sustaining currents (Malter effect). In a subsequent extended R&D program major changes to the original concept for the drift tubes (surface conductivity, drift gas, production materials) have been developed and validated for use in harsh radiation environments. In the test program various aging effects (like Malter currents, gain loss due to anode aging and etching of the anode gold surface) have been observed and cures by tuning of operation parameters have been developed.Comment: 14 pages, 6 figures, to be published in the Proceedings of the International Workshop On Aging Phenomena In Gaseous Detectors, 2-5 Oct 2001, Hamburg, German

    ÔĽŅMultiple identities in decentralized Spain: The case of Catalonia

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    Publicado en Regional and Federal Studies, vol. 8, n¬ļ 3, 1998, pp. 65-88.The persistence of a dual self-identification expressed by citizens in the Spanish Comunidades Aut√≥nomas (nationalities and regions) is one of the main features of centre-periphery relations in democratic Spain. This 'dual identity' or 'compound nationality' incorporates -in variable proportions, individually or subjectively asserted- both state/national and ethnoterritorial identities with no apparent exclusion. It characterises the ambivalent and dynamic nature of spatial politics in decentralized Spain. A succinct review of the main developments in Spain's contemporary history is carried out in order to provide a background for the discussion of the various identities expressed by citizens in Catalonia. A segmentation analysis reviews the various forms of Catalan self-identification, among which ‚Äėduality‚Äô is to be underlined.Peer reviewe

    CAD-based computer vision: the automatic generation of recognition stragtegies

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    Journal ArticleThree-dimensional model-based computer vision uses geometric models of objects and sensed data to recognize objects in a scene. Likewise, Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems are used to interactively generate three-dimensional models during these fields. Recently, the unification of CAD and vision systems has become the focus of research in the context of manufacturing automation. This paper explores the connection between CAD and computer vision. A method for the automatic generation of recognition strategies based on the geometric properties of shape has been devised and implemented. This uses a novel technique developed for quantifying the following properties of features which compose models used in computer vision: robustness, completeness, consistency, cost, and uniqueness. By utilizing this information, the automatic synthesis of a specialized recognition scheme, called a Strategy Tree, is accomplished. Strategy Trees describe, in a systematic and robust manner. the search process used for recognition and localization of particular objects in the given scene. They consist of selected features which satisfy system constraints and Corroborating Evidence Subtrees which are used in the formation of hypotheses. Verification techniques, used to substantiate or refute these hypotheses, are explored. Experiments utilizing 3-D data are presented

    The QCD transition temperature: results with physical masses in the continuum limit II.

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    We extend our previous study [Phys. Lett. B643 (2006) 46] of the cross-over temperatures (T_c) of QCD. We improve our zero temperature analysis by using physical quark masses and finer lattices. In addition to the kaon decay constant used for scale setting we determine four quantities (masses of the \Omega baryon, K^*(892) and \phi(1020) mesons and the pion decay constant) which are found to agree with experiment. This implies that --independently of which of these quantities is used to set the overall scale-- the same results are obtained within a few percent. At finite temperature we use finer lattices down to a <= 0.1 fm (N_t=12 and N_t=16 at one point). Our new results confirm completely our previous findings. We compare the results with those of the 'hotQCD' collaboration.Comment: 19 pages, 8 figures, 3 table

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an