1,229 research outputs found

    In-service Initial Teacher Education in the Learning and Skills Sector in England: Integrating Course and Workplace Learning

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    The aim of the paper is to advance understanding of in-service learning and skills sector trainee teachersā€™ learning and propose ways of improving their learning. A conceptual framework is developed by extending Billettā€™s (International Journal of Educational Research 47:232ā€“240, 2008) conceptualisation of workplace learning, as a relationally interdependent process between the opportunities workplaces afford for activities and interactions and how individuals engage with these, to a third base of participation, the affordances of the initial teacher education course. Hager and Hodkinsonā€™s (British Educational Research Journal 35:619ā€“638, 2009) metaphor of ā€˜learning as becomingā€™ is used to conceptualise the ways trainees reconstruct learning in a continuous transactional process of boundary crossing between course and workplace. The findings of six longitudinal case studies of traineesā€™ development, and evidence from other studies, illustrate the complex interrelationships between LSS workplace affordances, course affordances and trainee characteristics and the ways in which trainees reconstruct learning in each setting. The experience of teaching and interacting with learners, interactions with colleagues, and access to workplace resources and training are important workplace affordances for learning. However, some trainees have limited access to these affordances. Teaching observations, course activities and experiences as a learner are significant course affordances. Traineesā€™ beliefs, prior experiences and dispositions vary and significantly influence their engagement with course and workplace affordances. It is proposed that better integration of course and workplace learning through guided participation in an intentional workplace curriculum and attention to the ways trainees choose to engage with this, together with the use of practical theorising has the potential to improve trainee learning

    Searching for Invariants using Temporal Resolution

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    Abstract. In this paper, we show how the clausal temporal resolution technique developed for temporal logic provides an effective method for searching for invariants, and so is suitable for mechanising a wide class of temporal problems. We demonstrate that this scheme of searching for invariants can be also applied to a class of multi-predicate induction problems represented by mutually recursive definitions. Completeness of the approach, examples of the application of the scheme, and overview of the implementation are described.

    The Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory: Cloud-Based Mock Galaxy Catalogues

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    We introduce the Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory (TAO), an online virtual laboratory that houses mock observations of galaxy survey data. Such mocks have become an integral part of the modern analysis pipeline. However, building them requires an expert knowledge of galaxy modelling and simulation techniques, significant investment in software development, and access to high performance computing. These requirements make it difficult for a small research team or individual to quickly build a mock catalogue suited to their needs. To address this TAO offers access to multiple cosmological simulations and semi-analytic galaxy formation models from an intuitive and clean web interface. Results can be funnelled through science modules and sent to a dedicated supercomputer for further processing and manipulation. These modules include the ability to (1) construct custom observer light-cones from the simulation data cubes; (2) generate the stellar emission from star formation histories, apply dust extinction, and compute absolute and/or apparent magnitudes; and (3) produce mock images of the sky. All of TAO's features can be accessed without any programming requirements. The modular nature of TAO opens it up for further expansion in the future.Comment: 17 pages, 11 figures, 2 tables; accepted for publication in ApJS. The Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory (TAO) is now open to the public at https://tao.asvo.org.au/. New simulations, models and tools will be added as they become available. Contact [email protected] if you have data you would like to make public through TAO. Feedback and suggestions are very welcom

    Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution (SAGE): Model Calibration and Basic Results

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    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modelling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the "Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution" model, or SAGE for short. SAGE is a significant update to that used in Croton et al. (2006) and has been rebuilt to be modular and customisable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organised in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in SAGE to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling--radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of a common default parameterization on each simulation, with a focus on the local galaxy population.Comment: 15 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in ApJS. SAGE is a publicly available codebase for modelling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, available at https://github.com/darrencroton/sage Questions and comments can be sent to Darren Croton: [email protected]

    Comparison of Diagnostic Profiles of Deaf and Hearing Children with a Diagnosis of Autism.

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    There is limited research comparing the presentation of autism in deaf and hearing children and young people. These comparisons are important to facilitate accurate diagnosis, as rates of misdiagnosis and delay in diagnosis amongst deaf children and young people are high. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic assessment profiles of a UK cohort of autistic deaf and hearing children and young people. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised-Deaf adaptation was completed with the parents of 106 children and young people (deaf children = 65; hearing children = 41). The majority of items explored showed no significant differences between deaf and hearing children and young people. Differences were found in peer relationships, where autistic deaf participants were less likely to respond to the approaches of other children or play imaginatively with peers. These findings need to be taken into consideration by clinicians in the assessment process

    Student vocational teachers: the significance of individual positions in workplace learning

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    In most Initial Teacher Preparation (ITP) programmes, learning in teaching placements is considered to be an important component for providing workplace learning experiences to develop the skills of being a teacher. This paper is based on a bigger qualitative study which explored the learning experiences of a group of in-service student vocational teachers prior to and during their one-year ITP programme in Brunei. The study examined these student teachersā€™ dispositions to learning as revealed through their experiences on different placements during their training. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of the student vocational teachersā€™ roles and positions relative to their teaching placements. Theoretically, the findings also extend Bourdieuā€™s thinking, where existing cultural capital in the form of subject knowledge which is valued in one context does not necessarily help the learning of individuals in becoming a vocational teacher in another context. In addition, the paper argues for a need to reconceptualise in-service teacher education, more specifically, the workplace learning aspect. Lastly, it concludes with recommendations to support these student teachers in their placements through creating more expansive learning environments

    Autism Spectrum Social Stories In Schools Trial 2 (ASSSIST2) : study protocol for a randomised controlled trial analysing clinical and cost-effectiveness of Social Storiesā„¢ in primary schools

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    BACKGROUND: Interventions designed to support children with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) can be time consuming, needing involvement of outside experts. Social Storiesā„¢ are a highly personalised intervention aiming to give children with ASC social information or describing an otherwise difficult situation or skill. This can be delivered daily by staff in education settings. Studies examining Social Storyā„¢ use have yielded mostly positive results but have largely been single case studies with a lack of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Despite this numerous schools are utilising Social Storiesā„¢, and a fully powered RCT is timely. METHODS: A multi-site pragmatic cluster RCT comparing care as usual with Social Storiesā„¢ and care as usual. This study will recruit 278 participants (aged 4-11) with a clinical diagnosis of ASC, currently attending primary school in the North of England. Approximately 278 school based staff will be recruited to provide school based information about participating children with approximately 140 recruited to deliver the intervention. The study will be cluster randomised by school. Potential participants will be screened for eligibility prior to giving informed consent. Follow up data will be collected at 6 weeks and 6 months post randomisation and will assess changes in participants' social responsiveness, goal based outcomes, social and emotional health. The primary outcome measure is the Social Responsiveness Scale Second Edition (SRS-2) completed by school based staff at 6 months. Approvals have been obtained from the University of York's Research Governance Committee, Research Ethics Committee and the Health Research Authority. Study results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to participating families, educational staff, local authority representatives, community groups and Patient and Participant Involvement representatives. Suggestions will be made to NICE about treatment evidence dependent on findings. DISCUSSION: This study addresses a much used but currently under researched intervention and results will inform school based support for primary school children with a diagnosis of ASC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered on the ISRCTN registry (registration number: ISRCTN11634810). The trial was retrospectively registered on 23rd April 2019

    The Unseeing Eye: Disability and the hauntology of Derridaā€™s ghost. A story in three parts

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    Through the employment of the three stanzas of Thomas Hardyā€™s poem ā€˜The Self-Unseeingā€™ this paper seeks to tremble the picture of disability located in the pedagogical materials in English Schools. By mobilising, and then reversing, Derridaā€™s concept of the visor and the ghost, as well as Benthamā€™s Panopticon, this story reveals the power of the Them, the Their and the They. In materialising the ghost of the real of disability within a utopia of hope this story deconstructs the power of Their transparent house by revealing disabled people as magnificent beings

    Why alternative teenagers self-harm: exploring the link between non-suicidal self-injury, attempted suicide and adolescent identity

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    Background: The term ā€˜self-harmā€™ encompasses both attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Specific adolescent subpopulations such as ethnic or sexual minorities, and more controversially, those who identify as ā€˜Alternativeā€™ (Goth, Emo) have been proposed as being more likely to self-harm, while other groups such as ā€˜Jocksā€™ are linked with protective coping behaviours (for example exercise). NSSI has autonomic (it reduces negative emotions) and social (it communicates distress or facilitates group ā€˜bondingā€™) functions. This study explores the links between such aspects of self-harm, primarily NSSI, and youth subculture.<p></p> Methods: An anonymous survey was carried out of 452 15 year old German school students. Measures included: identification with different youth cultures, i.e. Alternative (Goth, Emo, Punk), Nerd (academic) or Jock (athletic); social background, e.g. socioeconomic status; and experience of victimisation. Self-harm (suicide and NSSI) was assessed using Self-harm Behavior Questionnaire and the Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM).<p></p> Results: An ā€œAlternativeā€ identity was directly (rā€‰ā‰ˆā€‰0.3) and a ā€œJockā€ identity inversely (rā€‰ā‰ˆā€‰-0.1) correlated with self-harm. ā€œAlternativeā€ teenagers self-injured more frequently (NSSI 45.5% vs. 18.8%), repeatedly self-injured, and were 4ā€“8 times more likely to attempt suicide (even after adjusting for social background) than their non-Alternative peers. They were also more likely to self-injure for autonomic, communicative and social reasons than other adolescents.<p></p> Conclusions: About half of ā€˜Alternativeā€™ adolescentsā€™ self-injure, primarily to regulate emotions and communicate distress. However, a minority self-injure to reinforce their group identity, i.e. ā€˜To feel more a part of a groupā€™
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