37 research outputs found

    An IR Study of the Velocity Structure of the Cometary Compact HII region G29.96-0.02

    Get PDF
    We have mapped the velocity structure of the cometary compact HII region G29.96-0.02 using long-slit echelle spectra of the HI Br gamma line. This technique detects line emission over a much wider area at the necessary spatial resolution compared to radio recombination line observations. Significant structure in both the velocity centroids and the line widths is seen over the entire nebula. Large line widths are seen ahead of the bow and in the tail which may be due to turbulent motions in shocked and interface regions respectively. We construct analytic models of the density and velocity structure in order to attempt to distinguish between the bow shock and champagne flow models which have been put forward to explain the cometary morphology of many compact HII regions. The bow shock model is unable to explain the large velocity gradient that we see right across the tail of the cometary region which can only be explained by the streaming motions towards low density regions in the champagne model. However, our approximation to the champagne model is also not able to fit all of the features of the data. More realistic versions of this model which include the effects of stellar winds and density gradients may be able to provide a better match to these data.Comment: 19 pages Latex source, 9 postscript figures and macros. gzipped tar set. To appear in Astrophysical Journal, June 20. Also available by anonymous ftp from ftp://aaoepp.aao.gov.au/local/sll/g29.uu (uuencoded gzipped tar file

    Disks around massive young stellar objects: are they common?

    Full text link
    We present K-band polarimetric images of several massive young stellar objects at resolutions ‚ąľ\sim 0.1-0.5 arcsec. The polarization vectors around these sources are nearly centro-symmetric, indicating they are dominating the illumination of each field. Three out of the four sources show elongated low-polarization structures passing through the centers, suggesting the presence of polarization disks. These structures and their surrounding reflection nebulae make up bipolar outflow/disk systems, supporting the collapse/accretion scenario as their low-mass siblings. In particular, S140 IRS1 show well defined outflow cavity walls and a polarization disk which matches the direction of previously observed equatorial disk wind, thus confirming the polarization disk is actually the circumstellar disk. To date, a dozen massive protostellar objects show evidence for the existence of disks; our work add additional samples around MYSOs equivalent to early B-type stars.Comment: 9 pages, including 2 figures, 1 table, to appear on ApJ

    The circumstellar disk, envelope, and bi-polar outflow of the Massive Young Stellar Object W33A

    Full text link
    The Young Stellar Object (YSO) W33A is one of the best known examples of a massive star still in the process of forming. Here we present Gemini North ALTAIR/NIFS laser-guide star adaptive-optics assisted K-band integral-field spectroscopy of W33A and its inner reflection nebula. In our data we make the first detections of a rotationally-flattened outer envelope and fast bi-polar jet of a massive YSO at near-infrared wavelengths. The predominant spectral features observed are Br-gamma, H_2, and a combination of emission and absorption from CO gas. We perform a 3-D spectro-astrometric analysis of the line emission, the first study of its kind. We find that the object's Br-gamma emission reveals evidence for a fast bi-polar jet on sub-milliarcsecond scales, which is aligned with the larger-scale outflow. The hybrid CO features can be explained as a combination of hot CO emission arising in a disk close to the central star, while cold CO absorption originates in the cooler outer envelope. Kinematic analysis of these features reveals that both structures are rotating, and consistent with being aligned perpendicularly to both the ionised jet and the large-scale outflow. Assuming Keplerian rotation, we find that the circumstellar disk orbits a central mass of >10Msun, while the outer envelope encloses a mass of ~15Msun. Our results suggest a scenario of a central star accreting material from a circumstellar disk at the centre of a cool extended rotating torus, while driving a fast bi-polar wind. These results therefore provide strong supporting evidence for the hypothesis that the formation mechanism for high-mass stars is qualitatively similar to that of low-mass stars.Comment: 13 pages, 18 figs. Accepted for publication in MNRA

    Observing protoplanetary discs with the Square Kilometre Array -- I. Characterising pebble substructure caused by forming planets

    Full text link
    High angular resolution observations of discs at mm wavelengths (on scales of a few au) are now commonplace, but there is a current lack of a comparable angular resolution for observations at cm wavelengths. This presents a significant barrier to improving our understanding of planet formation, in particular how dust grains grow from mm to cm sizes. In this paper, we examine the ability of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) to observe dust substructure in a young, planet-forming disc at cm wavelengths. We use dusty hydrodynamics and continuum radiative transfer to predict the distribution and emission of 1 cm dust grains (or pebbles) within the disc, and simulate continuum observations with the current SKA1-MID design baseline at frequencies of 12.5 GHz (Band 5b, ~2.4 cm) on 5-10 au scales. The SKA will provide high-fidelity observations of the cm dust emission substructure in discs for integration times totalling 100's of hours. Radial structure can be obtained at a sufficient resolution and S/N from shorter (10's of hours) integration times by azimuthal averaging in the image plane. By modelling the intensity distribution directly in the visibility plane, it is possible to recover a similar level of (axisymmetric) structural detail from observations with integration times 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than required for high-fidelity imaging. Our results demonstrate that SKA1-MID will provide crucial constraints on the distribution and morphology of the raw material for building planets, the pebbles in protoplanetary discs.Comment: 12 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    An equatorial wind from the massive young stellar object S140 IRS 1

    Get PDF
    The discovery of the second equatorial ionized stellar wind from a massive young stellar object is reported. High resolution radio continuum maps of S140 IRS 1 reveal a highly elongated source that is perpendicular to the larger scale bipolar molecular outflow. This picture is confirmed by location of a small scale monopolar near-IR reflection nebula at the base of the blueshifted lobe. A second epoch of observations over a five year baseline show little ordered outward proper motion of clumps as would have been expected for a jet. A third epoch, taken only 50 days after the second, did show significant changes in the radio morphology. These radio properties can all be understood in the context of an equatorial wind driven by radiation pressure from the central star and inner disc acting on the gas in the surface layers of the disc as proposed by Drew et al. (1998). This equatorial wind system is briefly compared with the one in S106IR, and contrasted with other massive young stellar objects that drive ionized jets.Comment: 19 pages, 5 figures, accepted by ApJ, minor changes in light of referees repor

    Tomography of Galactic star-forming regions and spiral arms with the Square Kilometer Array

    Get PDF
    © 2014 Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/. Published by Proceedings of Science http://pos.sissa.it/Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at radio wavelengths can provide astrometry accurate to 10 micro-arcseconds or better (i.e. better than the target GAIA accuracy) without being limited by dust obscuration. This means that unlike GAIA, VLBI can be applied to star-forming regions independently of their internal and line-of-sight extinction. Low-mass young stellar objects (particularly T Tauri stars) are often non-thermal compact radio emitters, ideal for astrometric VLBI radio continuum experiments. Existing observations for nearby regions (e.g. Taurus, Ophiuchus, or Orion) demonstrate that VLBI astrometry of such active T Tauri stars enables the reconstruction of both the regions' 3D structure (through parallax measurements) and their internal kinematics (through proper motions, combined with radial velocities). The extraordinary sensitivity of the SKA telescope will enable similar "tomographic mappings" to be extended to regions located several kpc from Earth, in particular to nearby spiral arm segments. This will have important implications for Galactic science, galactic dynamics and spiral structure theories

    The RMS Survey: Critical Tests of Accretion Models for the Formation of Massive Stars

    Full text link
    There is currently no accepted theoretical framework for the formation of the most massive stars, and the manner in which protostars continue to accrete and grow in mass beyond \sim10Msun is still a controversial topic. In this study we use several prescriptions of stellar accretion and a description of the Galactic gas distribution to simulate the luminosities and spatial distribution of massive protostellar population of the Galaxy. We then compare the observables of each simulation to the results of the Red MSX Source (RMS) survey, a recently compiled database of massive young stellar objects. We find that the observations are best matched by accretion rates which increase as the protostar grows in mass, such as those predicted by the turbulent core and competitive accretion (i.e. Bondi-Hoyle) models. These 'accelerating accretion' models provide very good qualitative and quantitative fits to the data, though we are unable to distinguish between these two models on our simulations alone. We rule out models with accretion rates which are constant with time, and those which are initially very high and which fall away with time, as these produce results which are quantitatively and/or qualitatively incompatible with the observations. To simultaneously match the low- and high-luminosity YSO distribution we require the inclusion of a 'swollen-star' pre-main-sequence phase, the length of which is well-described by the Kelvin-Helmholz timescale. Our results suggest that the lifetime of the YSO phase is \sim 10^5yrs, whereas the compact Hii-region phase lasts between \sim 2 - 4 \times 10^5yrs depending on the final mass of the star. Finally, the absolute numbers of YSOs are best matched by a globally averaged star-formation rate for the Galaxy of 1.5-2Msun/yr.Comment: 22 pages, 24 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRA

    VISTA Variables in the <i>Vía Láctea</i> (VVV): Halfway Status and Results

    Get PDF
    The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) survey is one of six near-infrared ESO public surveys, and is now in its fourth year of observing. Although far from being complete, the VVV survey has already delivered many results, some directly connected to the intended science goals (detection of variable stars, microlensing events, new star clusters), others concerning more exotic objects, e.g., novae. Now, at the end of the fourth observing period, and comprising roughly 50% of the proposed observations, the status of the survey, as well some of results based on the VVV data, are presented.Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísica
    corecore