2,404 research outputs found

    Intergenerational Earnings Mobility in Singapore and the United States

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    This study compared intergenerational earnings mobility in Singapore and the United States by replicating the limitations in the Singapore National Youth Survey on the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The mean estimated earnings elasticities are almost identical: 0.26 in Singapore and 0.27 in the United States. Transformed to 0.45 and 0.47 respectively to reflect permanent status, mobility in the two countries is moderately low compared internationally. The finding of similar mobility is not surprising given that the economic realities, welfare systems, education regimes, and labor structures in the two countries are similar. Policy makers face the daunting challenge of overcoming immobility and inequality while maintaining global competitiveness.Intergenerational earnings mobility; Singapore; United States

    Contrarian Real Estate Investment in Some Asia Pacific Cities

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    The profitability of contrarian investment strategy (i.e. investing in value stocks) is one of the most well‐established empirical facts in the finance literature. It would appear, however, that the strategy has not been extended to real estate. Thus, the paper examines the contrarian investment strategy in relation to real estate so as to ascertain the comparative advantage(s) (in terms of performance) of ‘value’ and ‘growth’ property investments. It is found, after a case study of 11 cities in the Asia‐Pacific over the period 1994Q2 through 2004Q2, that contrarian real estate investment consistently outperformed growth property investment. The results of stochastic dominance test validate the relative superiority of ‘value’ over ‘growth’ property investment. This implies that fund managers who traditionally have been favouring prime (i.e. growth) property investment may have to reconsider their investment strategy if they want to maximize their return

    An unusual S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene from dinoflagellate is methylated

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    Background: S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase (AdoMetS) catalyzes the formation of S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), the major methyl group donor in cells. AdoMet-mediated methylation of DNA is known to have regulatory effects on DNA transcription and chromosome structure. Transcription of environmental-responsive genes was demonstrated to be mediated via DNA methylation in dinoflagellates. Results: A full-length cDNA encoding AdoMetS was cloned from the dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the CcAdoMetS gene, is associated with the clade of higher plant orthrologues, and not to the clade of the animal orthrologues. Surprisingly, three extra stretches of residues ( 8 to 19 amino acids) were found on CcAdoMetS, when compared to other members of this usually conserved protein family. Modeled on the bacterial AdeMetS, two of the extra loops are located close to the methionine binding site. Despite this, the CcAdoMetS was able to rescue the corresponding mutant of budding yeast. Southern analysis, coupled with methylation-sensitive and insensitive enzyme digestion of C. cohnii genomic DNA, demonstrated that the AdoMetS gene is itself methylated. The increase in digestibility of methylation-sensitive enzymes on AdoMet synthetase gene observed following the addition of DNA methylation inhibitors L-ethionine and 5-azacytidine suggests the presence of cytosine methylation sites within CcAdoMetS gene. During the cell cycle, both the transcript and protein levels of CcAdoMetS peaked at the G1 phase. L- ethionine was able to delay the cell cycle at the entry of S phase. A cell cycle delay at the exit of G2/M phase was induced by 5-azacytidine. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates a major role of AdoMet-mediated DNA methylation in the regulation of cell proliferation and that the CcAdoMetS gene is itself methylated

    Asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM) for high-contrast and high-speed microfluidic cellular imaging

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    High-throughput cellular imaging is acclaimed as captivating yet challenging in biomedical diagnostics. We have demonstrated a new imaging modality, asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM), by incorporating a simple detection scheme which is a further advancement in time-stretch microscopy - a viable solution to achieve high-speed and high-throughput cellular imaging. Through the asymmetric-detection scheme in ATOM, the time-stretch image contrast is enhanced through accessing to the phase-gradient information. With the operation in the 1 μm wavelength range, we demonstrate high-resolution and high-contrast cellular imaging in ultrafast microfluidic flow (up to 10 m/s) by ATOM - achieving an imaging throughput equivalent to 100,000 cells/sec. © 2014 SPIE.published_or_final_versio

    Dorsal root entry zone approach in spinal intramedullary tumours: a revisit and review of the technique

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    Meeting Theme: Degenerative Lumbar SpineOral-Poster Presentation IINTRODUCTION: Surgical excision is the mainstay treatment for the intramedullary spinal cord tumour. However, when no tumour exposed on the surface of the spinal cord in this kind of tumour, myelotomy is required. Median myelotomy (MM) is the standard approach to be described in the literatures, but we did encounter complications probably related to this approach solely. After such incidents, we adopted the dorsal root entry zone myelotomy (DREZM) approach in the surgery treating these intramedullary tumours …published_or_final_versio

    Improving interface bonding of double-skinned CFST columns

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    It has been demonstrated that high-strength concrete (HSC) is able to improve the strength-to-weight ratio of reinforced concrete columns and maximise the usable areas of tall buildings. However, closely spaced transverse reinforcement needs to be installed to provide stronger confinement for averting brittle failure of HSC. To resolve the problem, double-skinned concrete-filled-steel-tubular (CFST) columns have been advocated, which eliminates the steel congestion problem for better concrete placing and reduces the concrete arching action thus providing a more uniform confining pressure. Despite these advantages, a major shortcoming of double-skinned CFST columns is that imperfect interface bonding occurs in the elastic stage that reduces elastic strength and stiffness. Thus, the authors proposed to adopt external confinement to restrict the lateral dilation of the outer tube of double-skinned CFST columns. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed external rings, a total of 20 double-skinned normal- and high-strength CFST columns were tested. From the test results, it was observed that the stiffness, axial load-carrying capacity and ductility of ringconfined double-skinned CFST columns were significantly higher than the unconfined columns

    Differential regulation of cytokine-and phorbol ester-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B by Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin in human airway epithelial cells

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    Polymorphisms of CR1, CLU and PICALM confer susceptibility of Alzheimer's disease in a southern Chinese population

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    In this case-controlled study, we tested susceptible genetic variants for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in CR1, CLU and PICALM from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in a southern Chinese population. Eight hundred twelve participants consisting of 462 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) patients and 350 nondemented control subjects were recruited. We found by multivariate logistic regression analysis, that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CR1 (rs6656401 adjusted allelic p = 0.035; adjusted genotypic p = 0.043) and CLU (rs2279590 adjusted allelic p = 0.035; adjusted genotypic p = 0.006; rs11136000 adjusted allelic p = 0.038; adjusted genotypic p = 0.009) were significantly different between LOAD patients and nondemented controls. For PICALM, LOAD association was found only in the APOE ε4 (-) subgroup (rs3851179 adjusted allelic p = 0.028; adjusted genotypic p = 0.013). Our findings showed evidence of CR1, CLU, and PICALM and LOAD susceptibility in an independent southern Chinese population, which provides additional evidence for LOAD association apart from prior genome-wide association studies in Caucasian populations. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.postprin

    Role of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes on the main parameters of the Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process

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    Electrical discharge machining is a very accurate non-traditional manufacturing process for creating tiny apertures, complex shapes and geometries within mechanical parts and assemblies. Its performance is evaluated in terms of surface roughness, existence of cracks, voids and recast layer on the surface of product. The high heat generated on the electrically discharged material during the EDM process unfortunately decreases the quality of product. In this paper the high strength and unique electrical and thermal properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes are used to improve the EDM performance when machining the AISI H13 tool steel, by means of copper electrodes. Material removal rate, electrode wear rate, surface roughness and recast layer were measured in presence of carbon nanotubes in the dielectric, then compared to the outcome of traditional EDM. Experiments show that mixing multi-wall carbon nanotubes within the dielectric makes the EDM more efficient, particularly if machining parameters are set at low pulse of energ

    Down-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial (Enos) proteins and mRNA iNOS in bronchiectasis in vivo

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