286 research outputs found

    Recalcitrant or keras kepala? : a cross-cultural study of how Malaysian and Australian press covered the Keating-Mahathir spat

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    The Controversies and Difficulties of Diagnosing Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

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    We welcome the correspondence from Lavie and Amirav (1), highlighting the difficulties diagnosing primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and the role of high-speed video analysis (HSVA). As members of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) PCD Diagnostic Task Force (2) and/or large PCD Centres, we agree that HSVA has an important role that is not recognized by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) PCD Diagnostic Guideline (3). This risks a large proportion of false-negative “missed” diagnoses and a sizable number of false-positive cases; we make additional important observations.</div

    Association between purchase of over-the-counter medications and ovarian cancer diagnosis in the Cancer Loyalty Card Study (CLOCS):observational case-control study

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    BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are frequently used to self-care for nonspecific ovarian cancer symptoms prior to diagnosis. Monitoring such purchases may provide an opportunity for earlier diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the Cancer Loyalty Card Study (CLOCS) was to investigate purchases of OTC pain and indigestion medications prior to ovarian cancer diagnosis in women with and without ovarian cancer in the United Kingdom using loyalty card data. METHODS: An observational case-control study was performed comparing purchases of OTC pain and indigestion medications prior to diagnosis in women with (n=153) and without (n=120) ovarian cancer using loyalty card data from two UK-based high street retailers. Monthly purchases of pain and indigestion medications for cases and controls were compared using the Fisher exact test, conditional logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: Pain and indigestion medication purchases were increased among cases 8 months before diagnosis, with maximum discrimination between cases and controls 8 months before diagnosis (Fisher exact odds ratio [OR] 2.9, 95% CI 2.1-4.1). An increase in indigestion medication purchases was detected up to 9 months before diagnosis (adjusted conditional logistic regression OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.04-1.83). The ROC analysis for indigestion medication purchases showed a maximum area under the curve (AUC) at 13 months before diagnosis (AUC=0.65, 95% CI 0.57-0.73), which further improved when stratified to late-stage ovarian cancer (AUC=0.68, 95% CI 0.59-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: There is a difference in purchases of pain and indigestion medications among women with and without ovarian cancer up to 8 months before diagnosis. Facilitating earlier presentation among those who self-care for symptoms using this novel data source could improve ovarian cancer patients' options for treatment and improve survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03994653; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03994653

    Investigation of a bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane as a phenyl replacement within an LpPLA2 inhibitor

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    We describe the incorporation of a bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane moiety within two known LpPLA2 inhibitors to act as bioisosteric phenyl replacements. An efficient synthesis to the target compounds was enabled with a dichlorocarbene insertion into a bicyclo[1.1.0]butane system being the key transformation. Potency, physicochemical, and X-ray crystallographic data were obtained to compare the known inhibitors to their bioisosteric counterparts, which showed the isostere was well tolerated and positively impacted on the physicochemical profile

    Axonemal structures reveal mechanoregulatory and disease mechanisms

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    Motile cilia and flagella beat rhythmically on the surface of cells to power the flow of fluid and to enable spermatozoa and unicellular eukaryotes to swim. In humans, defective ciliary motility can lead to male infertility and a congenital disorder called primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), in which impaired clearance of mucus by the cilia causes chronic respiratory infections1. Ciliary movement is generated by the axoneme, a molecular machine consisting of microtubules, ATP-powered dynein motors and regulatory complexes2. The size and complexity of the axoneme has so far prevented the development of an atomic model, hindering efforts to understand how it functions. Here we capitalize on recent developments in artificial intelligence-enabled structure prediction and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to determine the structure of the 96-nm modular repeats of axonemes from the flagella of the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and human respiratory cilia. Our atomic models provide insights into the conservation and specialization of axonemes, the interconnectivity between dyneins and their regulators, and the mechanisms that maintain axonemal periodicity. Correlated conformational changes in mechanoregulatory complexes with their associated axonemal dynein motors provide a mechanism for the long-hypothesized mechanotransduction pathway to regulate ciliary motility. Structures of respiratory-cilia doublet microtubules from four individuals with PCD reveal how the loss of individual docking factors can selectively eradicate periodically repeating structures

    Hydrogen atom transfer‐mediated cyclisations of nitriles

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    Hydrogen atom transfer‐mediated intramolecular C−C coupling reactions between alkenes and nitriles, using PhSiH3 and catalytic Fe(acac)3, are described. This introduces a new strategic bond disconnection for ring‐closing reactions, forming ketones via imine intermediates. Of note is the scope of the reaction, including formation of sterically hindered ketones, spirocycles and fused cyclic systems

    ‘Dominant ethnicity’ and the ‘ethnic-civic’ dichotomy in the work of A. D. Smith

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    This article considers the way in which the work of Anthony Smith has helped to structure debates surrounding the role of ethnicity in present-day nations. Two major lines of enquiry are evident here. First, the contemporary role of dominant ethnic groups within 'their' nations and second, the interplay between ethnic and civic elements in nationalist argument. The two processes are related, but maintain elements of distinctiveness. Smith's major contribution to the dominant ethnicity debate has been to disembed ethnicity from the ideologically-charged and/or anglo-centric discourse of ethnic relations and to place it in historical context, thereby opening up space for dominant group ethnicity to be considered as a distinct phenomenon. This said, Smith's work does not adequately account for the vicissitudes of dominant ethnicity in the contemporary West. Building on the classical works of Hans Kohn and Friedrich Meinecke, Anthony Smith has also made a seminal contribution to the debate on civic and ethnic forms of national identity and nationalist ideology. As well as freeing this debate from the strong normative overtones which it has often carried, he has continued to insist that the terms civic and ethnic should be treated as an ideal-typical distinction rather than a scheme of classification

    Answering behavioral questions about energy efficiency in buildings

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    We identify behavioral questions that arise with 4 kinds of policy interventions for energy efficiency in buildings: information, incentives, standards, and technological research and development. A general strategy is described for answering such questions by using 6 analytical methods: formal models, analysis of existing data, surveys, ethnographic methods, small-scale experimentation, and evaluation research. We evaluate each method for addressing each behavioral question in policy analyses.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/26718/1/0000268.pd
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