267 research outputs found

    Effects of Frequent Interaction with Non-Native Speakers on English Dialect:/-t,d/ Deletion in the Anglophone Community of Japan

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    /T,d/ deletion was chosen as a speech token to test modifications to usage by native speakers of English due to frequent interactions with non-native anglophones in Japan. Approximately 250 tokens per each of thirty-nine informants were gathered at two intervals of one year. All informants were language or conversation instructors from the U.K., the U.S. and New Zealand working in Japan. A shift away from /t,d/ deletion was expected in function of the type of social networks of the speakers and their degree of contact with non-native anglophones, a result validated in two of three nationalities of informants but with variations according to gender in all three national groups. Social network theory is used to examine differences in individual rates of /t,d/ deletion and a multiple regression analysis confirms an inverse correlation between deletion and strong networks with Japanese anglophones

    Consonant Cluster Reduction Observed in the Anglophone Community of Japan

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    This paper investigates the consequences of frequent interaction with non-nativeEnglish speakers on the English usage of native English speakers living in Japan.Isolation from native speakers of English and frequent contact with non-nativespeakers, including Japanese people, may result in a change of linguistic environment for the native speakers of English. This change is likely to influence their way of speaking English while they are in Japan

    Unprecedented Immigration: The Ramifications on Japan’s Party Politics

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    Although the immigration discourse is a taboo subject in Japan, the aging demographics and the need for workers has brought the topic into discussion. Part of the OECD community, Japan remains the eldest liberal country who up till recently avoided immigration to maintain its unique image. This thesis builds on Japanese and immigration scholarship to examine how new pro-immigration policies of the conservative Liberal Democratic Party may affect their electoral standing. By looking at official statements, newspaper polls, and the wording of policies, it will help examine new spaces of contestation that have yet to be studied. As a forward thinking political analysis, the LDP’s maintenance of electoral power and the progression of Japan’s immigration remains uncertain. Changes that should be made can be predicted by observing the rhetoric of the discourse, successful wording of policies, disconnect of efforts, bureaucracy as a monopoly and the disapproval in the governmental approach

    When Working Abroad Becomes a “Dosa” (Sin): The Impact of Women’s Migrant Domestic Labor on the Gender Relations in Rural Indonesia

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    Since the 1980s, the Indonesian government has employed the strategy of sending women migrant workers. How does the policy of sending migrant workers abroad impact gender relations within the migrants’ household? This study discusses this question in the context of a village, Cianjur Province West Java in Indonesia, where the author conducted fieldwork. The study elucidated that the sending community makes religious accusations against married women who undertake overseas migration. That is, when women are on the move, their body is considered as dosa (sin). Moreover, as various social apparatuses strengthen these discourse functions, the study discusses local regulations that seek to uphold normative ethics in the name of religion. Women from A village try to overcome this dilemma by producing counter discourses and practices. Furthermore, migrant work by women transforms the masculinity of the spouses of these women. Men in families of migrant women are often called the “husband of a domestic worker.” This pejorative term is a code that is generated by the process of globalization.Depuis les années 1980, envoyer des femmes travailler dans des emplois saisonniers à l’étranger est une stratégie du gouvernement indonésien. Quel est l’impact de cette politique sur les relations entre les hommes et les femmes au sein des foyers d’immigrés ? Dans cet article l’auteure traite de cette question dans le contexte d’un village, dans la province Cianjur à l’ouest de Java en Indonésie, région dans laquelle elle a mené ses recherches. Elle montre que la communauté profère des accusations religieuses à l’encontre des femmes mariées qui entreprennent d’émigrer à l’étranger. Le corps des femmes en déplacement est considéré comme dosa (péché). L’auteure s’intéresse aussi aux règlementations locales qui cherchent à défendre des éthiques normatives au nom de la religion et les réponses et pratiques qu’apportent les femmes. En outre, le travail que les femmes immigrées effectuent transforme la masculinité de leurs époux ; les hommes sont souvent appelés le « mari de l’employée de maison ». Ce terme péjoratif est devenu un code qui résulte du processus de mondialisation.Desde los años 80, el gobierno de Indonesia ha empleado la estrategia de enviar a las trabajadoras migrantes al extranjero. ¿En qué forma la política de enviar trabajadores domésticos al extranjero impacta a las relaciones de género dentro del hogar de los migrantes? Este estudio analiza esta pregunta en el contexto de un pueblo, en la provincia de Cianjur, Java Occidental en Indonesia, donde el autor llevó a cabo el trabajo de campo. El estudio estableció que la comunidad de origen emite acusaciones religiosas contra las mujeres casadas que migran al extranjero. Es decir, cuando las mujeres están en movimiento, su cuerpo se considera como un dosa (pecado). Además, como existen varios aparatos sociales que fortalecen estas funciones del discurso, el estudio analiza las regulaciones locales que buscan sostener éticas normativas en nombre de la religión. Las mujeres del pueblo A intentan superar este dilema produciendo discursos y prácticas en contrario. Asimismo, el trabajo migrante en el extranjero realizado por mujeres transforma la masculinidad de los cónyuges de estas mujeres. A los hombres en las familias de las mujeres migrantes a menudo se los llama el “marido de una trabajadora doméstica”. Este término peyorativo es un código generado por el proceso de la globalización

    Identification of the Occipito-Pontine Tract Using Diffusion-Tensor Fiber Tracking in Adult-Onset Adrenoleukodystrophy with Topographic Disorientation

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    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a severe and progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by the peroxisomal transporter ATP-binding cassette, subfamily D, member 1 gene mutations. The defect of this gene product results in accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids in organs and serum, central demyelination, and peripheral axonopathy. Although there are different magnetic resonance (MR) findings which reflect various phenotypes in adrenoleukodystrophy, some cases present with specific symmetrical occipital white-matter lesions. We describe a patient with adult-onset X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy with topographic disorientation, whose brain MR images revealed T2-signal hyperintensity along the occipito-pontine tract and lateral lemnisci, but not in the cortico-spinal tract in the brainstem. The occipito-pontine tract and lateral lemnisci were clearly detected using diffusion-tensor fiber tracking, suggesting that the topographic disorientation of this patient might be related to the occipito-pontine tract. MR tractography can effectively identify the occipito-pontine tract and may help to localize the fibers associated with clinical symptoms

    Abnormal Cystatin C Levels in Two Patients with Bardet-Biedl Syndrome

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    Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by central obesity, mental impairment, rod-cone dystrophy, polydactyly, hypogonadism in males, and renal abnormalities. The causative genes have been identified as BBS1-14. In the Western countries, the prevalence of this disease ranges from 1/13,500 to 1/160,000, while only a few Japanese patients have been reported in the English-language literature. The incidence of renal dysfunction or anomalies in previous reports varies considerably ranging from ∼20% to universal occurrence. We here report that two Japanese patients who had BBS with normal BUN and creatinine levels had elevated levels of cystatin C, a sensitive marker of glomerular filtration rate. A urine albumin level increased only in the elder patient. Thus, cystatin C may be useful for detecting renal abnormalities in patients with an apparent normal renal function. Because this disease is diagnosed by accumulation of symptoms, such a sensitive marker might help early diagnosis of BBS

    A New Dissolution Effect of DMO on Human Pancreatic Stone : In vitro Study

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    In this study, we examined the dissolution effect of dimethadione (DMO) on pancreatic stones, when kept at 37°C in a DMO 0.05 M NaHC03 saline solution which was replaced once a week, were partially dissolved during a 12-week period. The decreasing stone weight ratios were 38% (1.0 g/1 DMO), 41% (0.5 g/1), 7% (0.1 g/1), and 2% (control). The DMO solution induced a concentration-dependent increase in the solubility of the pancreatic stones associated with a concentration-dependent fall in the solution pH. The eluted calcium concentration in the solution was measured after one week\u27s incubation, and then the decrease in stone weight in theory was calculated. The decrease in stone weight in practice, however, was more than the calculated weight in theory. To determine the reason for this discrepancy, we examined the solution microscopically for sediment and found amorphous substances indicating a concentration-dependent increase in the amount of sediment. These substances resembled artificially broken pancreatic stones and they were dissolved by bubbles following the addition of acetic acid. This phenomenon suggests that these substances and pancreatic stones consist of CaC03. Therefore, it appears DMO has the potency not only to dissolve CaCO3, but also to break pancreatic stones into small pieces

    DU-PAN 2 Antigen in Sera of Patients with Liver Diseases

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    To evaluate the usefulness of serum DU-PAN 2 (an antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against human pancreatic carcinoma cells), serum specimens from 370 cases of hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases along with 31 normal controls were studied using an enzyme immunoassay. Elevated levels of serum DU-PAN 2 were detected in the serum of 28.3% of the cases with chronic hepatitis (15/53), 36.5% of those with liver cirrhosis (27/74), 48.4% of the hepatocellular carcinoma cases (61/126) and 50% of primary biliary cirrhosis (4/8). Significant differences were noted between patients with chronic inactive hepatitis (17 cases mean 201.4 U/ml) and chronic active hepatitis (36 cases; mean 394.5 U/ml) and, more distinctly, between patients with compensated liver cirrhosis (41 cases; mean 225.1 U/ml) and, those with decompensated liver cirrhosis (33 cases; mean 564.7 U/ml). The highest median levels were seen in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (922.7 U/ml), and then in those with hepatocellular carcinoma (551.4 U/ml). Using an immunoperoxidase technique on formalin-fixed, deparaffinized liver sections, we showed that DU-PAN 2 reacted with bile-duct epithelium but never stained hepatoma cells. These results suggest that the determination of serum DU-PAN 2 can be useful in evaluating chronic liver diseases

    Serum Levels of 7S Collagen in HCV-Ab Positive Chronic Liver Diseases

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    Serum 7S collagen was measured in 100 patients with Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-Ab positive chronic liver disease using RIA kit (7S-RIA : Japan DPC Corporation). The serum levels of 7S collagen were significantly higher in all types of liver diseases than those in 20 healthy controls (3.9±0.4 ng/ml). The 7S collagen level was 8.4±3.6 ng/ml (n = 30) in chronic hepatitis (CH), 14.4±8.1 ng/ml (n = 30) in liver cirrhosis (LC), 14.5 ±8.6 ng/ml (n=40) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In chronic hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis had a mean 7S collagen value of 9.8±3.8 ng/ml (n=19), while that of chronic inactive hepatitis was 6.1±1.8 ng/ml (n=11). In decompensated liver cirrhosis, the 7S collagen value was 17.6±9.2 ng/ml (n=17), whereas that of compensated LC was 10.2±3.1 ng/ml (n=13). In HCC, 7S collagen was examined according to the size of the tumor. In HCC with a diameter of less than 3 cm, the value was 11.0±4.2 ng/ml (n = 5). In 3 to 5 cm lesions, it was 12.5±5.8 ng/ml (n=16) and those more than 5 cm in diameter, it was 17.1 ±10.8 ng/ml (n=19). Although there were no significant differences according to size, there was a tendency for the level of 7S collagen to increase with the size of the tumor. The HCV-Ab titer and 7S collagen level showed no significant correlation. Measurement of serum 7S collagen may be useful for the evaluation of the degree of progression of LC and HCC
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