209 research outputs found

    The Origin of the Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Cluster NGC 2005

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    The ancient Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) globular cluster NGC 2005 has recently been reported to have an ex-situ origin, thus, setting precedents that the LMC could have partially formed from smaller merged dwarf galaxies. We here provide additional arguments from which we conclude that is also fairly plausible an in-situ origin of NGC 2005, based on the abundance spread of a variety of chemical elements measured in dwarf galaxies, their minimum mass in order to form globular clusters, the globular cluster formation imprints kept in their kinematics, and the recent modeling showing that explosions of supernovae are responsible for the observed chemical abundance spread in dwarf galaxies. The present analysis points to the need for further development of numerical simulations and observational indices that can help us to differentiate between two mechanisms of galaxy formation for the LMC, namely, a primordial dwarf or an initial merging event of smaller dwarfs.Comment: 11 pages, 2 figures. Accepted for publication in The Astronomical Journa

    Enrichment of r-process elements in dwarf spheroidal galaxies in chemo-dynamical evolution model

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    The rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is a major process to synthesize elements heavier than iron, but the astrophysical site(s) of r-process is not identified yet. Neutron star mergers (NSMs) are suggested to be a major r-process site from nucleosynthesis studies. Previous chemical evolution studies however require unlikely short merger time of NSMs to reproduce the observed large star-to-star scatters in the abundance ratios of r-process elements relative to iron, [Eu/Fe], of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way (MW) halo. This problem can be solved by considering chemical evolution in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) which would be building blocks of the MW and have lower star formation efficiencies than the MW halo. We demonstrate that enrichment of r-process elements in dSphs by NSMs using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. Our high-resolution model reproduces the observed [Eu/Fe] by NSMs with a merger time of 100 Myr when the effect of metal mixing is taken into account. This is because metallicity is not correlated with time up to ~ 300 Myr from the start of the simulation due to low star formation efficiency in dSphs. We also confirm that this model is consistent with observed properties of dSphs such as radial profiles and metallicity distribution. The merger time and the Galactic rate of NSMs are suggested to be <~ 300 Myr and ~ 10410^{-4} yr1^{-1}, which are consistent with the values suggested by population synthesis and nucleosynthesis studies. This study supports that NSMs are the major astrophysical site of r-process.Comment: 16 pages, 16 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    Performance analysis of large-scale parallel-distributed processing with backup tasks for cloud computing

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    In cloud computing, a large-scale parallel-distributed processing service is provided where a huge task is split into a number of subtasks and those subtasks are processed on a cluster of machines called workers. In such a processing service, a worker which takes a long time for processing a subtask makes the response time long (the issue of stragglers). One of efficient methods to alleviate this issue is to execute the same subtask by another worker in preparation for the slow worker (backup tasks). In this paper, we consider the efficiency of backup tasks. We model the task-scheduling server as a single-server queue, in which the server consists of a number of workers. When a task enters the server, the task is split into subtasks, and each subtask is served by its own worker and an alternative distinct worker. In this processing, we explicitly derive task processing time distributions for the two cases that the subtask processing time of a worker obeys Weibull or Pareto distribution. We compare the mean response time and the total processing time under backup-task scheduling with those under normal scheduling. Numerical examples show that the efficiency of backup-task scheduling significantly depends on workers' processing time distribution


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    学位の種別: 課程博士審査委員会委員 : (主査)東京大学准教授 梅田 秀之, 国立天文台准教授 青木 和光, 東京大学教授 小久保 英一郎, 東京大学教授 尾中 敬, 東北大学教授 千葉 柾司University of Tokyo(東京大学

    RR-process enhancements of Gaia-Enceladus in GALAH DR3

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    The dominant site of production of rr-process elements remains unclear despite recent observations of a neutron star merger. Observational constraints on the properties of the sites can be obtained by comparing rr-process abundances in different environments. The recent Gaia data releases and large samples from high-resolution optical spectroscopic surveys are enabling us to compare rr-process element abundances between stars formed in an accreted dwarf galaxy, Gaia-Enceladus, and those formed in the Milky Way. We aim to understand the origin of rr-process elements in Gaia-Enceladus. We first construct a sample of stars to study Eu abundances without being affected by the detection limit. We then kinematically select 71 Gaia-Enceladus stars and 93 in-situ stars from the Galactic Archaeology with HERMES (GALAH) DR3, of which 50 and 75 stars can be used to study Eu reliably. Gaia-Enceladus stars clearly show higher ratios of [{Eu}/{Mg}] than in-situ stars. High [{Eu}/{Mg}] along with low [{Mg}/{Fe}] are also seen in relatively massive satellite galaxies such as the LMC, Fornax, and Sagittarius dwarfs. On the other hand, unlike these galaxies, Gaia-Enceladus does not show enhanced [{Ba}/{Eu}] or [{La}/{Eu}] ratios suggesting a lack of significant ss-process contribution. From comparisons with simple chemical evolution models, we show that the high [{Eu}/{Mg}] of Gaia-Enceladus can naturally be explained by considering rr-process enrichment by neutron-star mergers with delay time distribution that follows a similar power-law as type~Ia supernovae but with a shorter minimum delay time.Comment: accepted to A\&

    SIRIUS Project. IV. The formation history of the Orion Nebula Cluster driven by clump mergers

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    The Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is an excellent example for understanding the formation of star clusters. Recent studies have shown that ONC has three distinct age populations and anisotropy in velocity dispersions, which are key characteristics for understanding the formation history of the ONC. In this study, we perform a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics/NN-body simulation of star cluster formation from a turbulent molecular cloud. In this simulation, stellar orbits are integrated using a high-order integrator without gravitational softening; therefore, we can follow the collisional evolution of star clusters. We find that hierarchical formation causes episodic star formation that is observed in the ONC. In our simulation, star clusters evolve due to mergers of subclumps. The mergers bring cold gas with the clumps into the forming cluster. This enhances the star formation in the cluster centre. The dense cold gas in the cluster centre continues to form stars until the latest time. This explains the compact distribution of the youngest stars observed in the ONC. Subclump mergers also contribute to the anisotropy in the velocity dispersions and the formation of runaway stars. However, the anisotropy disappears within 0.5 Myr. The virial ratio of the cluster also increases after a merger due to the runaways. These results suggest that the ONC recently experienced a clump merger. We predict that most runaways originated from the ONC have already been found, but walkaways have not.Comment: 15 pages, 21 figures, and 3 tables, accepted for MNRA