210 research outputs found

    An Aggregation Technique for Large-Scale PEPA Models with Non-Uniform Populations

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    Performance analysis based on modelling consists of two major steps: model construction and model analysis. Formal modelling techniques significantly aid model construction but can exacerbate model analysis. In particular, here we consider the analysis of large-scale systems which consist of one or more entities replicated many times to form large populations. The replication of entities in such models can cause their state spaces to grow exponentially to the extent that their exact stochastic analysis becomes computationally expensive or even infeasible. In this paper, we propose a new approximate aggregation algorithm for a class of large-scale PEPA models. For a given model, the method quickly checks if it satisfies a syntactic condition, indicating that the model may be solved approximately with high accuracy. If so, an aggregated CTMC is generated directly from the model description. This CTMC can be used for efficient derivation of an approximate marginal probability distribution over some of the model's populations. In the context of a large-scale client-server system, we demonstrate the usefulness of our method

    A survey of the PEPA tools

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    This paper surveys the history and the current state of tool support for modelling with the PEPA stochastic process algebra and the PEPA nets modelling language. We discuss future directions for tool support for the PEPA family of languages.

    Fluid Model Checking

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    In this paper we investigate a potential use of fluid approximation techniques in the context of stochastic model checking of CSL formulae. We focus on properties describing the behaviour of a single agent in a (large) population of agents, exploiting a limit result known also as fast simulation. In particular, we will approximate the behaviour of a single agent with a time-inhomogeneous CTMC which depends on the environment and on the other agents only through the solution of the fluid differential equation. We will prove the asymptotic correctness of our approach in terms of satisfiability of CSL formulae and of reachability probabilities. We will also present a procedure to model check time-inhomogeneous CTMC against CSL formulae

    Amalgamation of Transition Sequences in the PEPA Formalism

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    This report presents a proposed formal approach towards reduction of sequences in PEPA components. By performing the described amalgamation procedure we may remove, from the Markov chain underlying an initial PEPA model, those states for which detailed local balance equations cannot be formulated. This transformation may lead to a simpler model with product form solution. Some classes of reduced models preserve those performance measures which we are interested in and, moreover, the steady state solution vector is much easier to find from the computational point of view

    Compositional approach to performance modelling

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    Population models from PEPA descriptions

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    Stochastic process algebras such as PEPA have enjoyed considerable success as CTMC-based system description languages for performance evaluation of computer and communication systems. However they have not been able to escape the problem of state space explosion, and this problem is exacerbated when other domains such as systems biology are considered. Therefore we have been investigating alternative semantics for PEPA models which give rise to a population view of the system, in terms of a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. This extended abstract gives an overview of this mapping

    Hybrid performance modelling of opportunistic networks

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    We demonstrate the modelling of opportunistic networks using the process algebra stochastic HYPE. Network traffic is modelled as continuous flows, contact between nodes in the network is modelled stochastically, and instantaneous decisions are modelled as discrete events. Our model describes a network of stationary video sensors with a mobile ferry which collects data from the sensors and delivers it to the base station. We consider different mobility models and different buffer sizes for the ferries. This case study illustrates the flexibility and expressive power of stochastic HYPE. We also discuss the software that enables us to describe stochastic HYPE models and simulate them.Comment: In Proceedings QAPL 2012, arXiv:1207.055

    Stochastic Process Algebras and their Markovian Semantics

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    HYPE with stochastic events

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    The process algebra HYPE was recently proposed as a fine-grained modelling approach for capturing the behaviour of hybrid systems. In the original proposal, each flow or influence affecting a variable is modelled separately and the overall behaviour of the system then emerges as the composition of these flows. The discrete behaviour of the system is captured by instantaneous actions which might be urgent, taking effect as soon as some activation condition is satisfied, or non-urgent meaning that they can tolerate some (unknown) delay before happening. In this paper we refine the notion of non-urgent actions, to make such actions governed by a probability distribution. As a consequence of this we now give HYPE a semantics in terms of Transition-Driven Stochastic Hybrid Automata, which are a subset of a general class of stochastic processes termed Piecewise Deterministic Markov Processes.Comment: In Proceedings QAPL 2011, arXiv:1107.074