4,361 research outputs found

    Warm molecular hydrogen in outflows from Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

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    Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) show on average three times more emission in the rotational transitions of molecular hydrogen than expected based on their star formation rates. Using Spitzer archival data we investigate the origin of excess warm H_2 emission in 115 ULIRGs of the IRAS 1 Jy sample. We find a strong correlation between H_2 and [FeII] line luminosities, suggesting that excess H_2 is produced in shocks propagating within neutral or partially ionized medium. This view is supported by the correlations between H_2 and optical line ratios diagnostic of such shocks. The galaxies powered by star formation and those powered by active nuclei follow the same relationship between H_2 and [FeII], with emission line width being the major difference between these classes (about 500 and 1000 km/sec, respectively). We conclude that excess H_2 emission is produced as the supernovae and active nuclei drive outflows into the neutral interstellar medium of the ULIRGs. A weak positive correlation between H_2 and the length of the tidal tails indicates that these outflows are more likely to be encountered in more advanced mergers, but there is no evidence for excess H_2 produced as a result of the collision shocks during the final coalescence.Comment: 16 pages, MNRAS accepted. Complete data tables and Spitzer spectra are available at http://www.pha.jhu.edu/~zakamska/ULIRGS

    Aquatic macroinvertebrate biodiversity of lowland rural and urban ponds in Leicestershire

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    Ponds are common and abundant features in nearly all landscapes typical of European lowland landscapes yet research on freshwater biodiversity has traditionally focussed on larger waterbodies such as lakes and rivers. This has led to an increased need to understand and quantify the biodiversity associated with pond habitats to better inform the active conservation and management of these small waterbodies. This thesis examines the aquatic macroinvertebrate biodiversity (alpha, beta and gamma) and conservation value of 95 ponds in Leicestershire, UK, across a variety of urban and rural landscape types and at a range of spatial scales. In addition, the relative importance of local (physicochemical and biological) and spatial (connectivity) variables in structuring macroinvertebrate communities within ponds is investigated. At a regional scale, the greatest macroinvertebrate biodiversity and conservation value was recorded within meadow ponds compared to urban, agricultural and forest ponds. Spatially, ponds were highly physically and biologically heterogeneous. Temporally (seasonally), invertebrate communities were most dissimilar in meadow and agricultural ponds but assemblages were similar in urban and forest ponds. In urban landscapes, park ponds supported a greater diversity of invertebrates than other urban or garden ponds and typically had a greater conservation value. Garden ponds were the most taxon poor of those investigated. Perennial floodplain meadow ponds supported a greater biodiversity of invertebrates compared to ephemeral meadow ponds although conservation value was similar. Despite regular inundation from the River Soar, ephemeral ponds supported distinct communities compared to perennial meadow ponds. Aquatic macrophytes supported a higher diversity of taxa than other pond mesohabitats across all landscapes studied. Physicochemical factors were identified to be the dominant influence on macroinvertebrate assemblages although, a combination of local and spatial factors best explained the variation in community composition at a regional scale and for meadow ponds. Spatial factors were not identified to significantly influence urban pond communities. This study highlights the ecological importance and conservation value of ponds in rural and anthropogenically disturbed landscapes. Recognition of the significant contribution of ponds to freshwater biodiversity at regional and landscape scales is important for future conservation of pond habitats and will help focus and direct conservation strategies to where they are needed most

    Ownership Structure, Property Performance, Multifamily Properties and REITs

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    This research extends literature that empirically evaluates the impact of ownership and management structure on property level performance. The results show that multifamily properties owned and managed by real estate investment trusts (REITs) generate higher effective rents at the property level than non-REIT-owned properties. After controlling for positive operating scale and brand effects, REIT property level performance is better than non-REIT property level performance in the market studied. The REIT structure represents diversified scale operators with property management skills. The results imply that the structure of property ownership can impact property performance.

    Enrichment of schizophrenia heritability in both neuronal and glia cell regulatory elements

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    Genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 robust risk loci for schizophrenia with thousands of variants mediating genetic heritability, the majority of which reside in non-coding regions. Analytical approaches have shown this heritability is strongly enriched at variants within regulatory elements identified from human post-mortem brain tissue. However, bulk post-mortem brain tissue has a heterogeneous cell composition, making biological interpretations difficult. We sought to refine the cell types mediating schizophrenia heritability by separating neuronal and glial signals using data from: (1) NeuN-sorted post-mortem brain and (2) cell culture systems. Schizophrenia heritability was partitioned using linkage disequilbrium (LD) score regression. Variants within genomic regions marked by H3K4me3 (marker of active promoters) from NeuN-positive (neuronal) and NeuN-negative (non-neuronal) cells explained a significant amount of schizophrenia heritability (P = 1.38 × 10−10 and P = 7.97 × 10−10). However, variants located in H3K4me3 sites specific to NeuN-positive (neuronal) cells were enriched (P = 3.13 × 10−4), while those specific to NeuN-negative (non-neuronal) cells were not (P = 0.470). Data from cell culture systems mimicked this pattern of association. We show the previously observed enrichment of heritability from variants at brain H3K4me3 sites is mediated by both neuronal and non-neuronal brain cell types. However, only neuronal cell populations showed a unique contribution driven by cell-type specific regulatory elements. Cell culture systems recapitulate disease relevant gene-regulatory landscapes, validating them as a tool for future investigation of genetic mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. Identifying the cell types in which risk variants operate will greatly increase our understanding of schizophrenia pathobiology and aid in the development of novel model systems and therapies

    Does God Intend that Sin Occur?

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    This open access book argues, from a detailed consideration of the Christian Scriptures, that God intends that sin occur. It swims against the tide of current thinking in philosophy of religion, arguing for an unfashionable conclusion. The book begins by considering the history of views on the question, paying particular attention to the Reformed or Calvinistic tradition. The heart of the book is a detailed examination of key passages from the Christian Scriptures that, it is argued, show that God does intend that sin occur. It also discusses in detail two alternative views that could be used to reinterpret these texts, one view that God intends only that the substratum of the sinful action occur, not the sin itself, and the other that God acts because a sin will occur but not intending that that sin occur. The book argues that these interpretative strategies, even when combined together, do not produce a plausible interpretation of the texts adduced

    Defect-dependent colossal negative thermal expansion in UiO-66(Hf) metal-organic framework

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    Thermally-densified hafnium terephthalate UiO-66(Hf) is shown to exhibit the strongest isotropic negative thermal expansion (NTE) effect yet reported for a metal-organic framework (MOF). Incorporation of correlated vacancy defects within the framework affects both the extent of thermal densification and the magnitude of NTE observed in the densified product. We thus demonstrate that defect inclusion can be used to tune systematically the physical behaviour of a MOF.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures, revise

    A Computational Investigation of Gear Windage

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    A CFD method has been developed for application to gear windage aerodynamics. The goals of this research are to develop and validate numerical and modeling approaches for these systems, to develop physical understanding of the aerodynamics of gear windage loss, including the physics of loss mitigation strategies, and to propose and evaluate new approaches for minimizing loss. Absolute and relative frame CFD simulation, overset gridding, multiphase flow analysis, and sub-layer resolved turbulence modeling were brought to bear in achieving these goals. Several spur gear geometries were studied for which experimental data are available. Various shrouding configurations and free-spinning (no shroud) cases were studied. Comparisons are made with experimental data from the open literature, and data recently obtained in the NASA Glenn Research Center Gear Windage Test Facility. The results show good agreement with experiment. Interrogation of the validative and exploratory CFD results have led, for the first time, to a detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms of gear windage loss, and have led to newly proposed mitigation strategies whose effectiveness is computationally explored

    The macroinvertebrate biodiversity and conservation value of garden and field ponds along a rural-urban gradient

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    The biodiversity and conservation value of semi-natural and field ponds in rural locations are widely acknowledged to be high compared to other freshwater habitats. However, the wider value of urban ponds, and especially garden ponds, has been largely neglected in comparison. This study examines the biodiversity and conservation value of aquatic macroinvertebrates in ponds along an urban-rural continuum over three seasons. Macroinvertebrate faunal richness and diversity of garden ponds (in both urban and sub-urban locations) was markedly lower than that associated with field ponds. The fauna recorded in garden ponds were largely a subset of the taxa recorded in the wider landscape. A total of 146 taxa were recorded from the 26 ponds examined (135 taxa from field ponds and 44 taxa from garden ponds); although only 10 taxa were unique to garden ponds. Garden ponds were frequently managed (macrophytes removed or sediment dredged) and contained artificial fountains or flowing water features which allowed a number of flowing water (lotic) taxa to colonise and persist. Despite the relatively limited faunal diversity and reduced conservation value of garden ponds they have the potential to serve as refugia for some taxa, especially Odonata with highly mobile adults. At the landscape scale, garden ponds provide a diverse and abundant range of freshwater habitats that could play an important role in conserving urban-macroinvertebrate biodiversity. However, for this to be achieved there is a need to provide guidance to home-owners on how this potentially valuable resource can help support freshwater biodiversity