84,120 research outputs found

    Seeking Liberty’s Refuge: Analyzing Legislative Purpose Under Casey’s Undue Burden Standard

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    In the 1992 decision Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, the U.S. Supreme Court crafted the “undue burden” standard for evaluating the constitutionality of abortion laws. Under that standard, a state is free to regulate abortion, as long as the regulation does not impose an undue burden on a woman’s right to an abortion. Although the standard is disjunctive, the Casey opinion focuses on the “effect” prong of the test, with little guidance as to what a “purpose” prong inquiry would look like. Subsequent Supreme Court abortion jurisprudence has served only to obscure the issue. Circuit courts, therefore, have taken differing approaches to claims that an abortion law was adopted for an invalid purpose. This Note addresses the divide in how courts evaluate purpose-based challenges under Casey’s undue burden standard. One group of courts— including the Tenth, Fifth, and Eighth Circuits—apply heightened scrutiny to purpose prong challenges, requiring that the state articulate an important governmental interest, which is substantially related to the regulation in question. In contrast, a second group of courts–comprised of the Seventh and Fourth Circuits–apply rational basis review to purpose-based claims, requiring only that the law be rationally related to a legitimate state interest. This Note argues that the application of heightened scrutiny to purpose-based challenges more accurately applies prior Supreme Court abortion precedent, and is more consonant with substantive due process jurisprudence as a whole. It concludes with a discussion of the effect that heightened scrutiny would have on many common abortion laws

    Cadmium sulfide photoconductor cells Final report, Sep. 1964 - Sep. 1965

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    Photoconductive cell configurations using cadmium sulfide film deposited on glass and metal foi

    A modern control theory based algorithm for control of the NASA/JPL 70-meter antenna axis servos

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    A digital computer-based state variable controller was designed and applied to the 70-m antenna axis servos. The general equations and structure of the algorithm and provisions for alternate position error feedback modes to accommodate intertarget slew, encoder referenced tracking, and precision tracking modes are descibed. Development of the discrete time domain control model and computation of estimator and control gain parameters based on closed loop pole placement criteria are discussed. The new algorithm was successfully implemented and tested in the 70-m antenna at Deep Space Network station 63 in Spain

    A new algorithm for modeling friction in dynamic mechanical systems

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    A method of modeling friction forces that impede the motion of parts of dynamic mechanical systems is described. Conventional methods in which the friction effect is assumed a constant force, or torque, in a direction opposite to the relative motion, are applicable only to those cases where applied forces are large in comparison to the friction, and where there is little interest in system behavior close to the times of transitions through zero velocity. An algorithm is described that provides accurate determination of friction forces over a wide range of applied force and velocity conditions. The method avoids the simulation errors resulting from a finite integration interval used in connection with a conventional friction model, as is the case in many digital computer-based simulations. The algorithm incorporates a predictive calculation based on initial conditions of motion, externally applied forces, inertia, and integration step size. The predictive calculation in connection with an external integration process provides an accurate determination of both static and Coulomb friction forces and resulting motions in dynamic simulations. Accuracy of the results is improved over that obtained with conventional methods and a relatively large integration step size is permitted. A function block for incorporation in a specific simulation program is described. The general form of the algorithm facilitates implementation with various programming languages such as FORTRAN or C, as well as with other simulation programs

    A new state space model for the NASA/JPL 70-meter antenna servo controls

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    A control axis referenced model of the NASA/JPL 70-m antenna structure is combined with the dynamic equations of servo components to produce a comprehansive state variable (matrix) model of the coupled system. An interactive Fortran program for generating the linear system model and computing its salient parameters is described. Results are produced in a state variable, block diagram, and in factored transfer function forms to facilitate design and analysis by classical as well as modern control methods

    Processing the Therapeutic Relationship

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    The authors propose that if therapists and clients process their therapeutic relationship (i.e., directly address in the here and now feelings about each other and about the inevitable problems that emerge in the therapy relationship), feelings will be expressed and accepted, problems will be resolved, the relationship will be enhanced, and clients will transfer their learning to other relationships outside of therapy. The authors review theories supporting the idea of processing the therapeutic relationship, discuss the relevant empirical literature in this area, and provide their conceptualization of the construct of processing the therapeutic relationship based on the theory and empirical findings. Finally, they discuss methodological concerns and suggest implications for clinical practice, training, and further research

    Disturbance torque rejection properties of the NASA/JPL 70-meter antenna axis servos

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    Analytic methods for evaluating pointing errors caused by external disturbance torques are developed and applied to determine the effects of representative values of wind and friction torque. The expressions relating pointing errors to disturbance torques are shown to be strongly dependent upon the state estimator parameters, as well as upon the state feedback gain and the flow versus pressure characteristics of the hydraulic system. Under certain conditions, when control is derived from an uncorrected estimate of integral position error, the desired type 2 servo properties are not realized and finite steady-state position errors result. Methods for reducing these errors to negligible proportions through the proper selection of control gain and estimator correction parameters are demonstrated. The steady-state error produced by a disturbance torque is found to be directly proportional to the hydraulic internal leakage. This property can be exploited to provide a convenient method of determining system leakage from field measurements of estimator error, axis rate, and hydraulic differential pressure

    A new method for analysis of limit cycle behavior of the NASA/JPL 70-meter antenna axis servos

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    A piecewise linear method of analyzing the effects of discontinuous nonlinearities on control system performance is described. The limit cycle oscillatory behavior of the system resulting from the nonlinearities is described in terms of a sequence of linear system transient responses. The equations are derived which relate the initial and the terminal conditions of successive transients and the boundary conditions imposed by the non-linearities. The method leads to a convenient computation algorithm for prediction of limit cycle characteristics resulting from discontinuous nonlinearities such as friction, deadzones, and hysteresis
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