499 research outputs found

    UTILIZAÇÃO E MANEJO DOS RECURSOS MADEIREIROS DAS FLORESTAS TROPICAIS ÚMIDAS

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    Utilization and Management of Forest Resources of the Tropical Moist Forests

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    This paper is a comprehensive review of the utilization and management of tropical moist forests in Asia, Africa and America countries, and, in particular, the Brazilian Amazon. The review includes concepts of forest management, history and experimental forest research. Managing the forest on a sustainable yield basis is a wise land use for the Amazonian region which is suitable for almost the entire area. There is no specific model of forest management for different timber industries, but product diversification is recommended as a general strategy toward the goal of management sustainability.Neste trabalho √© apresentada uma revis√£o das atividades de manejo de florestas tropicais √ļmidas, incluindo conceitos, hist√≥rico, aplica√ß√Ķes c pesquisas experimentais sobre o tema, em importantes pa√≠ses tropicais da √Āsia, √Āfrica c Am√©rica, com √™nfase na Amaz√īnia Brasileira. √Č tamb√©m apresentada uma an√°lise da situa√ß√£o das florestas tropicais √ļmidas e das perspectivas quanto ao desenvolvimento florestal da regi√£o amaz√īnica, depois da Rio-92 e de outros importantes movimentos ambientalistas que ocorreram nos √ļltimos anos. Manejar a floresta sob regime de rendimento sustentado √© uma forma inteligente de uso do solo amaz√īnico. √Č aplic√°vel em muitas sub-regi√Ķes da Amaz√īnia, mas n√£o para a regi√£o toda. N√£o h√° modelo espec√≠fico de manejo para as distintas ind√ļstrias madeireiras c, a tend√™ncia atual, √© a diversifica√ß√£o de produtos para que a sustentabilidade econ√īmica do manejo seja mais facilmente alcan√ßada

    A Silvicultura No Inpa

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    This report shows the evolution of Silviculture, in terms of research, during the 27 years of the existence of INPA (the National Institute for Research in the Amazon), from the first proposal in 1954 by the botanist Adolfo Ducke, to create a forest reserve, now the Ducke Forest Reserve, with also reference to the development of forestry in tropical Brazil. The silvicultural research tasks developed, and under development, by the Department of Tropical Silviculture, in the Ducke Forest Reserve (Km-26 along the Manaus-ltacoatiara Highway of 10,000 hectares), and in the Experimental Station of Tropical Silviculture (Km-45 along the Manaus-Caracara√≠ highway of 21.000 hectares), are briefly summarised. Regarding the tasks under development at this moment, the Project "Ecological Management and Exploitation of Moist Tropical Forest", In the Agriculture and Animal Husbandry District of SUFRAMA (Superintendency of the Free Zone of Manaus), starting at Km-14 along the access road ZF-2. has priority, with special emphasis on natural Regeneration. The report lists some conclusive results of the silvicultural works carried out at the field research stations of INPA.O presente relato procura mostrar a evolu√ß√£o da Silvicultura, em termos de pesquisas, durante os 27 anos de exist√™ncia do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz√īnia (INPA), desde a primeira proposi√ß√£o para a cria√ß√£o de uma reserva florestal pelo bot√Ęnico Adolfo Ducke, atualmente Reserva Florestal Ducke, at√© os dias de hoje, sendo tamb√©m referenciada ao desenvolvimento florestal no Brasil. S√£o apresentados, resumidamente, os trabalhos de pesquisas silviculturais desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento pelo Departamento de Silvicultura Tropical na Reserva Florestal Ducke (Km-26 da Rodovia Manaus-ltacoatiara com 10000 hectares) e na Esta√ß√£o Experimental de Silvicultura Tropical (Km-45 da Rodovia Manaus-Caracarai com 21000 hectares). Sobre trabalhos em desenvolvimento, neste momento, a prioridade do Departamento de Silvicultura Tropical √© o projeto Manejo Ecol√≥gico e Explora√ß√£o da Floresta Tropical Umida, no Distrito Agropecu√°rio da SUFRAMA (Superintend√™ncia da Zona Franca de Manaus), a partir do Km-14 da vicinal ZF-2, com √™nfase especial √† Regenera√ß√£o natural. Alguns dos trabalhos, com resultados conclusivos sobre aspectos silviculturais nas esta√ß√Ķes de pesquisa do INPA, foram listados no corpo do presente relato

    Tabelas de volume para povoamentos nativos de canafístula (Leguminosae), cedro (Meliaceae), pau marfim (Rutaceae)e canelas (Lauraceae), no Extremo Oeste paranaense

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    Resumo: O presente trabalho de pesquisa foi desenvolvido com o prop√≥sito de estudar o comportamento da equa√ß√£o volum√©trica da vari√°vel combinada ou de SPURR, V = a + b D¬≤H, na elabora√ß√£o de tabelas de volumes comerciais com e sem casca para as seguintes esp√©cies florestais: Canaf√≠stula (Leguminosae), Cedro (Meliaceae), Pau-marfim (Rutaceae) e Canelas (Lauraceae). A avalia√ß√£o desse estudo foi realizado em fun√ß√£o do m√©todo dos m√≠nimos quadrados, para as condi√ß√Ķes edafo-clim√°ticas da regi√£o compreendida pelo extremo oeste paranaense, ao longo da faixa marginal esquerda do rio Paran√°, entre os munic√≠pios de Foz do Igua√ßu e Gua√≠ra. Ap√≥s a determina√ß√£o dos coeficientes de regress√£o da equa√ß√£o volum√©trica proposta, foram elaboradas tabelas de volume, para cada esp√©cie florestal, sendo atribu√≠do maior √™nfase ao volume comercial, urna vez que, este o volume utilizado nas ind√ļstrias madeireiras, principalmente serrarias. Para uma melhor compreens√£o do comportamento do volume comercial de uma √°rvore, foi realizado um estudo, em paralelo, do fator de forma comercial, percentagem de casca e da altura comercial

    Illegal Selective Logging and Forest Fires in the Northern Brazilian Amazon

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    Illegal selective logging and forest fires occur on a large scale in the northern Brazilian Amazon, contributing to an increase in tree mortality and a reduction in forest carbon stock. A total of 120 plots of 0.25 ha (30 ha) were installed in transitional ecosystems or ecotones (LOt) between the forested shade-loving campinarana (Ld) and dense-canopy rainforest, submontane (Ds), in the National Forest (Flona) of Anau√°, southern Roraima. Measuring the diameters at breast height (DBH ‚Č• 10 cm) and the heights of 171 dead trees (fallen naturally, illegally exploited, and affected by forest fires), enabled the estimation of carbon content from the application of a biomass equation developed at Manaus, and the calculation of a correction factor, using the average height of the largest trees. From 2015‚Äď2017, we mapped the real extent of illegal selective logging and forest fires across the region with CLASlite and INPE/Queimadas. From measurements of 14,730 live and dead trees across 30 hectares (491 ¬Ī 15 trees¬∑ha-1), the illegal selective logging and associated forest fires, and aggravation by severe El Ni√Īo droughts resulted in an 8.2% mortality of trees (40 ¬Ī 9 dead trees¬∑ha-1) and a 3.5% reduction in forest carbon stock (6 ¬Ī 3 Mg¬∑ha-1) in the short-term. The surface area or influence of forest fires of very high density were estimated in the south-central region of Roraima (8374 km2) and the eastern region of the Flona Anau√° (37 km2). Illegal selective logging and forest fires in forest areas totaled 357 km2 in the mosaic area, and 6 km2 within Flona Anaua. Illegal selective logging and forest fires in the years of severe El Ni√Īo droughts threatened the maintenance of environmental services provided by Amazonian forests

    Productivity of four Terra Firme tree species of Central Amazonia

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    Individual productivity analysis of species helps describe their comportment in forest ecosystems. The objective of this work was to analyze the productivity of four tree species during a period of six years (2000-2006) in a "terra firme" area near Manaus, Amazonas. The productivity was indirectly estimated by using individual allometric equations along with data from a continuous forest inventory. The following species were selected for this study: Pouteria reticulata Eyma (Sapotaceae), Micrandra siphonioides Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), Protium hebetatum Daly (Burseraceae) and Eschweilera wachenheimii Sand (Lecythidaceae). These were selected because they presented a very high importance value index in the area. The raw data used to developed specific equations were taken from an existing set of data. Samples for each species numbered less than 30 individuals; for this reason, "Jackknife" was used. The "jackknifed" equations were used to estimate aboveground biomass of individuals which occurred in two permanent sample plots measured in 2000, and re-measured in 2002, 2004 and 2006. The "jackknife" method was consistent and reliable, with high and significant determination coefficients (r² > 0,93) and low values of standard error of estimates (sy.x 0,93) e baixos valores de erro padrão da estimativa (s y.x < 0,692), evidenciando sua consistência e precisão. As taxas de produtividade foram específicas para cada espécie, entretanto, o padrão de produtividade das espécies E. wachenheimii, P. reticulata e P. hebetatum foram semelhantes, diferindo da M. siphonioides. A maior produtividade se refere à espécie M. siphonioides e a menor à P. hebetatum. A variação da produtividade intra-específica foi superior à variação inter-específica, com P. reticulata apresentando o maior coeficiente de variação

    A floresta amaz√īnica e o futuro do Brasil

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    Estimativa de sequestro de carbono em mata ciliar: projeto POMAR, S√£o Paulo (SP)Estimate of carbon sequestration in riparian forests: the POMAR project case, S√£o Paulo (SP)

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    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estimar a quantidade de carbono fixada (em plantio de tr√™s anos de idade) na vegeta√ß√£o arb√≥rea do projeto POMAR, na cidade de S√£o Paulo/SP, localizado √†s margens do Rio Pinheiros. Foram feitas medidas de altura e CAP (circunfer√™ncia √† altura do peito) de dezesseis esp√©cies. Na √°rea estudada de 4.612 m2 havia 920 √°rvores. O estoque de carbono, tr√™s anos ap√≥s o plantio, foi estimado em 67 t, que equivale a um estoque de 145,26 t de C ha-1. O carbono sequestrado estimado por um hectare equivale √† emiss√£o de vinte ve√≠culos. Concluiu-se que o plantio de √°rvores em cidades contribui para o sequestro de C devendo ser uma pr√°tica incentivada em conjunto com redu√ß√£o de emiss√Ķes. Abstract The research goal was to estimate the amount of Carbon that was fixed in a three-year-old plantation of tree species at the POMAR project in S√£o Paulo city, on the Pinheiros River banks. The diameter at breast height (DBH) and height of sixteen tree species were measured and recorded. The studied plot had 4,612.5 m2 and 920 trees. Carbon accumulation was 67t three years after planting, which corresponds to a stock of 145,26 t of C ha-1. The estimated carbon captured by 1 ha is equivalent to the emission of 20 vehicles. It was concluded that the planting of trees in cities contributes in the sequestration of Carbon and should be an encouraged practice in association with emission reduction

    USING DIAMETER VARIATION INDEX OF PIONEER SPECIES FOR CLASSIFICATION AND MODELING TROPICAL FOREST YIELD

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    This study sought to classify the productivity of a representative area of tropical forest, as well as to analyze the relationship between the structural variability of pioneer species and the yield of three management regimes. The study area is located at the Tropical Forestry Experimental Station belonging to INPA (National Institute for Amazon Research), approximately 90 km from downtown Manaus, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data were collected from twelve 1 ha sample plots. Diameter was measured annually for all individuals with DBH  10 cm between the years 1990 and 2008. Pioneer species served as the basis for calculating the Diameter Variability Index VI% over time. Three classes of variability were established according to the guide curve technique used for site classification by the dominant height. Biological and probabilistic functions were used to model VI% as a function of time of exploitation, as well as the volumetric yield over time as a function of VI%. There is an inverse relationship between VI% and yield, which allows classification of site yield and conception of global yield models to which present good statistics of precision and adjustment, allowing the prediction of productivity and their dynamics throughout the time
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