39 research outputs found

    Changes in cell size and number and in rhizodermal development contribute to root tip swelling of Hyoscyamus albus roots subjected to iron deficiency

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    Root tip swelling is a common phenomenon observed when plant roots are subjected to Fe deficiency. We analysed whether an increase in cell number or an enlargement of cell width was involved in this phenomenon. Root tips of Hyoscyamus albus cultured with or without Fe were stained with fluorescent SYTO14 and analysed by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Time-course and position-based examination revealed that the inhibition of longitudinal cell elongation and acceleration of transverse cell enlargement under Fe deficiency started from the tips and then extended towards the base during the time-course period. An increase in cell number also occurred behind the tips. In addition, the development of rhizodermal protrusions was observed on the surface of roots subjected to Fe deficiency. These results indicated that changes in cell size and number and in root hair development were all involved in root tip swelling

    Neuropsychological assessment of visuo-perceptual processing in children with neurodevelopmental disorders

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    Rey 複雑図形検査(Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test)は視空間構成能力や視覚性記憶,実行機能などを評価する神経心理学的検査である。本研究では板書のノートテイクや漢字の書字などの学習場面でのつまずきがみられる3名の神経発達障害をともなう子どもを対象に Rey 複雑図形検査を実施し,視覚認知処理過程に関する検討をおこなった。3名はいずれもまとまりのある要素を細分化させた方略を用いて図形を描画しており,視覚構成能力に関する指標において著しい低値を認め,視知覚能力の発達の未成熟さが推測された。本検査は子どもの抱える学習上の問題の把握に有用であり,神経発達障害における視覚認知能力の発達的経過に関するさらなる検討が必要と考えられた。独立行政法人日本学術振興会 科研費(25870931

    Comparison of Pressure-Retarded Osmosis Performance between Pilot-Scale Cellulose Triacetate Hollow-Fiber and Polyamide Spiral-Wound Membrane Modules

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    Pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) has recently received attention because of its ability to generate power via an osmotic pressure gradient between two solutions with different salinities: high- and low-salinity water sources. In this study, PRO performance, using the two pilot-scale PRO membrane modules with different configurations—five-inch cellulose triacetate hollow-fiber membrane module (CTA-HF) and eight-inch polyamide spiral-wound membrane modules (PA-SW)—was evaluated by changing the draw solution (DS) concentration, applied hydrostatic pressure difference, and the flow rates of DS and feed solution (FS), to obtain the optimum operating conditions in PRO configuration. The maximum power density per unit membrane area of PA-SW at 0.6 M NaCl was 1.40 W/m2 and 2.03-fold higher than that of CTA-HF, due to the higher water permeability coefficient of PA-SW. In contrast, the maximum power density per unit volume of CTA-SW at 0.6 M NaCl was 4.67 kW/m3 and 6.87-fold higher than that of PA-SW. The value of CTA-HF increased to 13.61 kW/m3 at 1.2 M NaCl and was 12.0-fold higher than that of PA-SW because of the higher packing density of CTA-HF

    Comparison of Pressure-Retarded Osmosis Performance between Pilot-Scale Cellulose Triacetate Hollow-Fiber and Polyamide Spiral-Wound Membrane Modules

    No full text
    Pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) has recently received attention because of its ability to generate power via an osmotic pressure gradient between two solutions with different salinities: high- and low-salinity water sources. In this study, PRO performance, using the two pilot-scale PRO membrane modules with different configurations—five-inch cellulose triacetate hollow-fiber membrane module (CTA-HF) and eight-inch polyamide spiral-wound membrane modules (PA-SW)—was evaluated by changing the draw solution (DS) concentration, applied hydrostatic pressure difference, and the flow rates of DS and feed solution (FS), to obtain the optimum operating conditions in PRO configuration. The maximum power density per unit membrane area of PA-SW at 0.6 M NaCl was 1.40 W/m2 and 2.03-fold higher than that of CTA-HF, due to the higher water permeability coefficient of PA-SW. In contrast, the maximum power density per unit volume of CTA-SW at 0.6 M NaCl was 4.67 kW/m3 and 6.87-fold higher than that of PA-SW. The value of CTA-HF increased to 13.61 kW/m3 at 1.2 M NaCl and was 12.0-fold higher than that of PA-SW because of the higher packing density of CTA-HF

    Effect of DS Concentration on the PRO Performance Using a 5-Inch Scale Cellulose Triacetate-Based Hollow Fiber Membrane Module

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    In this study, pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) performance of a 5-inch scale cellulose triacetate (CTA)-based hollow fiber (HF) membrane module was evaluated under a wide range of operating conditions (0.0–6.0 MPa of applied pressure, 0.5–2.0 L/min feed solution (FS) inlet flow rate, 1.0–6.0 L/min DS inlet flow rate and 0.1–0.9 M draw solution (DS) concentration) by using a PRO/reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid system. The subsequent RO system for DS regeneration enabled the evaluation of the steady-stated module performance. In the case of pilot-scale module operation, since the DS dilution and the feed solution (FS) up-concentration had occurred and was not negligible, unlike the lab-scale experiment, PRO performance strongly depended on operating conditions such as inlet flow rates of both the DS and FS concentration. To compare the module performance with different configurations, we proposed a converted parameter in which a difference of the packing density between the spiral wound (SW) and the HF module was fairly considered. In the case of HF configuration, because of high packing density, volumetric-based performance was higher than that of SW module, that is, the required number of the module would be less than that of SW module in a full-scale PRO plant

    A Review of Red Yeast Rice, a Traditional Fermented Food in Japan and East Asia: Its Characteristic Ingredients and Application in the Maintenance and Improvement of Health in Lipid Metabolism and the Circulatory System

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    Red yeast rice has been used to produce alcoholic beverages and various fermented foods in China and Korea since ancient times; it has also been used to produce tofuyo (Okinawan-style fermented tofu) in Japan since the 18th century. Recently, monacolin K (lovastatin) which has cholesterol-lowering effects, was found in some strains of Monascus fungi. Since statins have been used world-wide as a cholesterol-lowering agent, processed foods containing natural statins are drawing attention as materials for primary prevention of life-style related diseases. In recent years, large-scale commercial production of red yeast rice using traditional solid-state fermentation has become possible, and various useful materials, including a variety of monascus pigments (polyketides) that spread as natural pigments, in addition to statins, are produced in the fermentation process. Red yeast rice has a lot of potential as a medicinal food. In this paper, we describe the history of red yeast rice as food, especially in Japan and East Asia, its production methods, use, and the ingredients with pharmacological activity. We then review evidence of the beneficial effects of red yeast rice in improving lipid metabolism and the circulatory system and its safety as a functional food

    Estudio Y Análisis De Bases De Datos-IM38-201701

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    El presente curso de especialidad general dirigido a alumnos de quinto ciclo de las carreras de Comunicación y Marketing Comunicación e Imagen Empresarial y Comunicación y Publicidad busca profundizar las Competencias Generales de Manejo de Información y Razonamiento Cuantitativo en su mayor nivel.La investigación cuantitativa a diferencia de la cualitativa con carácter exploratorio al ser concluyente permite obtener resultados definitivos y generalizables a la población estudiada por lo cual se convierte en un potente insumo al momento de diseñar estrategias de comunicación y marketing así como las campañas y tácticas necesarias para su implementación.El objetivo general es preparar al alumno para gestionar y realizar una investigación con un enfoque cuantitativo así como reconocer las más modernas técnicas de análisis de datos para el estudio de tendencias temas sociales y organizacionales.De esa manera el alumno conocerá el lenguaje utilizado en el diseño planeamiento ejecución y análisis de investigaciones de tipo concluyente a partir del uso de técnicas de recojo de datos bases de datos y estadísticas. Asimismo desarrollará los criterios necesarios para solicitar ejecutar controlar y evaluar la realización de un estudio cuantitativo e interpretar adecuadamente los resultados para una mejor toma de decisiones

    Divergence of metabolites in three phylogenetically close Monascus species (M. pilosus, M. ruber, and M. purpureus) based on secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters

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    Results We examined the diversity of secondary metabolite production in three Monascus species (M. pilosus, M. purpureus, and M. ruber) at both the metabolome level by LCMS analysis and at the genome level. Specifically, M. pilosus NBRC4520, M. purpureus NBRC4478 and M. ruber NBRC4483 strains were used in this study. Illumina MiSeq 300 bp paired-end sequencing generated 17 million high-quality short reads in each species, corresponding to 200 times the genome size. We measured the pigments and their related metabolites using LCMS analysis. The colors in the liquid media corresponding to the pigments and their related metabolites produced by the three species were very different from each other. The gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis of the three Monascus species also diverged, confirming that M. pilosus and M. purpureus are chemotaxonomically different. M. ruber has similar biosynthetic and secondary metabolite gene clusters to M. pilosus. The comparison of secondary metabolites produced also revealed divergence in the three species. Conclusions Our findings are important for improving the utilization of Monascus species in the food industry and industrial field. However, in view of food safety, we need to determine if the toxins produced by some Monascus strains exist in the genome or in the metabolome
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