632 research outputs found

    The Volumes of the Royal Medical Society of France, 1776–1793: a Window into Innovation, Patronage and Experimentation

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    In 1776, Doctors Vicq d’Azyr and Joseph de Lassone founded the Royal Medical Society of France and that same year the new Society began publishing an annual volume of news of medical interest, obituaries on the deaths of outstanding doctors and surgeons, articles on new medicine and drugs, on new operations as well as reflecting on the causes of different diseases and illnesses. Between 1776 and 1793, ten of these volumes were published under the title Histoire de la Société Royale de Médecine: histoire et mémoires. The Osler Library of the History of Medicine possesses four of them. Breaking with the tradition of Galen and with the diagnoses based on bookish knowledge, the members of this group favoured experimentation, the dissection of corpses and the close observation of the symptoms of the sick and the dying. This article looks at two aspects of their work: first it examines the goals and the structures of the Society that published the volumes and second, it analyses the organization and the types of articles published in the annual volumes.ResuméLes médecins Vicq d’Azyr et Joseph de Lassone ont fondé la Société royale de médecine en 1776 et aussitôt la nouvelle société a commencé à organiser la publication annuelle d’un volume de nouvelles d’intérêt médicales. Il devrait comporter les avis de décès des médecins et chirurgiens de renom, les articles sur des médicaments et drogues qui venaient d’être mis sur le marché, les interventions particulièrement innovatrices et les réflexions sur les causes de différentes maladies et épidémies. Entre 1776 et 1793, dix de ces volumes sont apparus sous le titre, Histoire de la Société Royale de Médecine: histoire et mémoires. La bibliothèque Osler de l’histoire de médecine détient quatre de ces volumes. Les articles des membres de ce groupe rompent avec la tradition de Galien et avec les diagnostics fondés sur les connaissances livresques. Ils favorisent l’expérimentation, la dissection des cadavres et l’observation des symptômes présentés par les maladies et les mourantes. Cet article étudie deux aspects de ces travaux: d’abord, il décrit les buts et les structures de la Société elle-même et second, il analyse l’organisation et les types d’articles publiés dans les volumes annuels

    Closing Down Local Hospitals in Seventeenth-Century France: The Mount Carmel and St Lazare Reform Movement

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    By the beginning of the seventeenth century, small hospitals in France were seen by royal and city officials as inefficient, redundant and frequently duplicating services already available. In 1672, acting upon this perception, Louis XIV authorized the Order of Notre Dame of Mount Carmel and of St Lazare to undertake a vast enquiry into the operation of these institutions, to shut down those which were corrupt or were not fulfilling the obligations specified in their charters, and to confiscate their holdings and revenues. This article examines the results of this experiment by looking at the operation of the Mount Carmel and St Lazare "reform" and by examining the grass-roots functioning of three small hospitals in southeastern France.Au début du dix-septième siècle, les administrateurs royaux comme ceux des grandes villes de France considéraient que les petits hôpitaux des villes et des villages étaient inefficaces et dépassés et faisaient souvent double emploi en matière de services. Pour ces raisons, Louis XIV a autorisé, en 1672, l'Ordre de Notre-Dame-du-Mont-Carmel et de Saint-Lazare à entreprendre une vaste enquête sur les opérations de ces établissements, à fermer ceux qui étaient corrompus ou qui ne fournissaient pas les services exigés par leurs chartes et à confisquer leurs biens et revenus. Cet article retrace le bilan de cette expérience à la lumière des résultats de la « réforme » du Mont-Carmel et de Saint-Lazare et du fonctionnement de trois petits hôpitaux du sud-est de la France

    Raymond A. Mentzer, Jr. — Blood and Belief: Family Survival and Confessional Identity among the Provincial Huguenot Nobility

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    Manual of Criminal Law and Procedure

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    Intended to aid to Alaska law enforcement officers in the performance of their duties in the field, this manual was designed to provide brief, quick access to major points of substantive and procedural criminal law. The manual contained discussion and procedural guidelines for investigatory stops, identification procedures including line-ups, arrest, search and seizure, interrogation, as well as discussion of justification for the use of nondeadly and deadly force whether by peace officers or civilians, culpability, entrapment, trial preparation, and media relations. The section on substantive criminal law deals with a selection of crimes most likely to be encountered by "street" officers as defined with the recently enacted Revised Alaska Criminal Code (effective January 1, 1980), desribing elements of each crime, investigative hints, and differences with previous provisions of the criminal code, where relevant.Alaska Department of Law Grant No. 78-A-014Introduction / Criminal Procedures / Substantive Criminal Law / Justification / Culpability / Entrapment / Trial Preparation / Media Relations / Appendice

    Formative and Summative Analyses of Disciplinary Engagement and Learning in Big Open Online Course

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    Situative theories of knowing and participatory approaches to learning and assessment were used to design and then analyze learning in a “big open online course” (“BOOC”) on educational assessment. The course was delivered using Google’s Course Builder platform which was customized extensively to support both summative and formative analyses of disciplinary social engagement and individual learning. The course featured personalized “wikifolio” public assignments peer commenting, endorsement, & promotion, formal online examinations, open digital badges, and participatory learning analytics. The course was first completed by 60 students in 2013 and impressive levels of engagement and learning were documented. The course was further refined in 2014 with embedded streaming videos, embedded formative assessments, and streamlined learning analytics. Of the sixty students who registered for the course, 22 completed it. This paper illustrates the more formative learning analytics used to advance the shared discourse in the course as well as the other new features and provides detailed evidence of engagement & learning.Googl

    Pain Points and Solutions: Bringing Data for Startups to Campus

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    Entrepreneurship is growing as a cross- and inter-disciplinary area of focus for higher education. From patent and tech transfer offices to business, science, and engineering programs, the demand for entrepreneurship resources and support delivered via libraries is booming. Building library collections to help patrons design, launch, and run successful businesses is challenging: Market research and private equity/venture capital resources arrive at premium prices. Increasingly, these resources must interoperate with software used to clean, analyze, and visualize data. This data is often difficult to find and deploy. Restrictive, corporate-style licenses reflect that new vendors are not yet acclimated to the academic market’s access requirements and licensing constraints. This paper will share a framework for how to understand entrepreneurship in higher education and explain the types of information commonly requested by users. Such information often exists in disciplinary silos, emphasizing the importance of collaborative collection development across subject lines. The authors will explore the unique challenges to building collections that serve patrons developing new ventures. This includes collaborating with external stakeholders to fund resources that have not been traditionally purchased by libraries. Strategies for licensing data and other e-resources in this space will be discussed, including the central complications arising from universities as incubators for for-profit startups. The authors will suggest best practices for building relationships with stakeholders, developing relevant collections and services, and marketing these resources to support communities

    Expansive Framing as Pragmatic Theory for Online and Hybrid Instructional Design

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    This article explores the complex question of how instruction should be framed (i.e., contextualized). Reports from the US National Research Council reveal a broad consensus among experts that most instruction should be framed with problems, examples, cases, and illustrations. Such framing is assumed to help learners connect new knowledge to broader “real world” knowledge, motivate continued engagement, and ensure that learners can transfer their new knowledge to subsequent contexts. However, different theories of learning lead to different assumptions about when such frames should be introduced and how such frames should be created. This article shows how contemporary situative theories of learning argue that frames should be (a) introduced before instructional content, (b) generated by learners themselves, (c) used to make connections with people, places, topics, and times beyond the boundaries of the course, and (d) used to position learners as authors who hold themselves and their peers accountable for their participation in disciplinary discourse. This expansive approach to framing promises to support engagement with disciplinary content that is productive (i.e., increasingly sophisticated, raising new questions, recognizing confusion, making new connections, etc.) and generative (i.e., supporting transferable learning that is likely to be useful and used in a wide range of subsequent educational, professional, achievement, and personal contexts). A framework called Participatory Learning and Assessment (PLA) is presented that embeds expansively framed engagement within multiple levels of increasing formal assessments. This paper first summarizes PLA as theory-laden design principles. It then presents PLA as fourteen more prescriptive steps that some may find easier to implement and to learn as they go. Examples are presented from several courses from an extended program of design-based research using this approach in online and hybrid secondary, undergraduate, graduate, and technical courses.Indiana University Office of the Vice Provost of Information Technolog
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