291 research outputs found

    The Relationship between Income Inequality, Poverty, and Globalization

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    globalization, income inequality, poverty, indices, principal component

    Measurement of a Multidimentional Index of Globalization and its Impact on Income Inequality

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    globalization, income inequality, indices, principal component

    A Generalized Knowledge Production Function

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    This paper presents a generalized production model based on the knowledge production function. The model allows the relationships between corporate competitiveness strategy, innovation, efficiency, productivity growth and outsourcing to be investigated at the firm level in a number of steps. First, in reviewing recent developments of researches on the above relationships, provide discussion on data and the methods of measuring these variables. Second, depending on availability of information, different measures are transferred into single multidimensional index of corporate strategy using principal component analysis. Third, stochastic frontier production function and factor productivity analysis are used to estimate the efficiency and factor productivity growth at the firm level. Fourth, the causal relationships between the five variables of interest are established and modelled. Finally, given the direction of causality, the implications of the findings for estimation of the relationship are discussed. For the empirical analysis we use Swedish firm-level innovation survey data covering both manufacturing and service sectors.Competition; innovation; outsourcing; productivity; efficiency; causality; firm

    On the Causality between GDP and Health Care Expenditure in Augmented Solow Growth Model

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    This paper examines conditional convergence of OECD countries in gross domestic product (GDP) and health care expenditure (HCE) per capita. It presents estimation of the augmented Solow growth model suggested by Mankiw, Romer and Weil (1992) to explain variation in output and expenditure per capita across countries. The variation is due to different steady state growth paths resulting from differences in the countries savings rate, education, and population growth. This paper is an extension of the MRW model by incorporating health capital proxied by HCE to the augmented Solow model. The analysis is further related to the studies of health care expenditure where GDP per capita appear to be the main factor determining the level of expenditure on health care. The issue of causality relationship between GDP and HCE is investigated. The empirical analysis is based OECD countries’ data for the period of 1970-1992. The results indicate that OECD countries converge at 3.7% per year to their steady state level of income per capita. The results show that HCE has positive effect on the economic growth and the speed of convergence. The speed of convergence is found to be sensitive to whether one imposes a constant or estimate the depreciation and technological growth components. With no restrictions imposed the convergence rate is 5.2%. Considering the rate of convergence in the HCE model the results show that OECD countries converge at 2.7% to their steady state of HCE per capita. In the HCE model a regression of the speed of convergence on variables determining the rate of convergence show close link to the variables characterizing the health care system of sample countries.Solow growth model; health care expenditure; GDP; convergence; OECD;

    On the Relationship between Innovation and Performance: A sensitivity Analysis

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    The objective of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of the estimated relationship between innovation and firm performance. In doing so, we rely on a knowledge production function approach and carry out comparisons in a number of respects. The sensitivity analysis is based on the comparison of a basic econometric model with different alternative models using the same data sources, an identical model but different data sources, different classifications of firm performance and different classifications of innovation. The analyses are performed in both level and growth rate dimensions. The overall picture gives indications of what factors cause variations in the estimated effects of interest and the direction of changes.Knowledge capital; productivity; innovation; manufacturing; services; knowledge intensity; Community Innovation Survey;

    AN ECONOMETRIC MODEL OF EMPLOYMENT IN ZIMBABWE¡¯S MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

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    This paper is concerned with the estimation of employment relationship and employment efficiency under production risk using a panel of Zimbabwe¡¯s manufacturing industries. A flexible labour demand function is used consisting of two parts: the traditional labour demand function and labour demand variance function. Labour demand is a function of wages, output, quasi-fixed inputs and time variables. The variance function is a function of the determinants of labour demand and a number of production and policy characteristic variables. Estimation of industry and time-varying employment efficiency is also considered. The empirical results show that the average employment efficiency is 92%.Labour demand, Variance, Efficiency, Manufacturing, Industries, Zimbabwe

    The link between firm-level innovation and aggregate productivity growth: a cross-country examination

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    This paper investigates whether failure in innovation at the firm level can account for cross-country heterogeneity in manufacturing productivity growth. There is no strong evidence in the literature on the existence of such link. Our work, however, differs in a number of ways from much of the previous cross-country comparisons on the relationship between innovation and productivity using firm-level data. First, a broader definition of innovation input is used in which research and development is one of several sources of innovation. Second, a quantitative innovation output measure is used in the analysis. Third, the analysis is based on larger and more representative samples of firms including small firms. Finally, an econometric framework based on the knowledge production function accounting for both selectivity and simultaneity bias is employed. The results from Nordic countries show that given difficulties in pooling the data, it is important to specify country-specific models accounting for country-specific effects and differences in the countries national innovation systems. --community innovation,cross-country comparisons,manufacturing,productivity

    Migration, Openness and the Global Preconditions of 'Smart Development'

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    In this article, we present a first empirical reflection on 'smart development', its measurement, possible 'drivers' and 'bottlenecks'. We first provide cross-national data on how much ecological footprint is used in the nations of the world system to 'deliver' a given amount of democracy, economic growth, gender equality, human development, research and development, and social cohesion. To this end, we first developed UNDP-type performance indicators on these six main dimensions of development and on their combined performance. We then show the non-linear regression trade-offs between ecological footprints per capita on these six dimensions of development and their combined performance index. The residuals from these regressions are our new measures of smart development: a country experiences smart development, if it achieves a maximum of development with a minimum of ecological footprint. We then look at the cross-national drivers and bottlenecks of this 'smart development' and compare their predictive power using stepwise regression procedures. Apart from important variables and indicators, derived from sociological dependency and world systems theories, we also test the predictive power of several other predictors as well. Our estimates underline the enormous importance of the transfer of resources from the center to the periphery, brought about by migration, with huge statistical observed positive effects of received worker remittances on smart human development, Happy Life Years, smart gender justice, smart R&D, and both formulations of the smart development index.index numbers and aggregation, environment and development, environment and trade, smart development, sustainability, environmental accounts and accounting, environmental equity, population growth, international migration, remittances

    Learning from Latin America's Experience: Europe's Failure in the "Lisbon Process"

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    The current paper investigates the cross-national relevance of Latin American "dependencia theory" for five dimensions of development (democracy and human rights, environment, human development and basic human needs satisfaction, gender justice, redistribution, growth and employment) on a global scale. It tries to confront the very basic pro-globalist assumptions of the "Lisbon process", the policy target of the European leaders since the EU's Lisbon Council meeting in March 2000 to make Europe the leading knowledge-based economy in the world with a "Latin American perspective". A realistic and politically useful analysis of the "Lisbon process" has to be a "Schumpeterian" approach. First, we analyze the "Lisbon performance" of the world economy by multivariate, quantitative means, looking into the possible contradictions that might exists between the dependent insertion into the global economy and other goals of the "Lisbon process". Dependency from the large, transnational corporations, as correctly predicted by Latin American social science of the 1960s and 1970s, emerges as one of the most serious development blockades, confronting Europe. Secondly, we analyze European regional performance since the 1990s in order to know whether growth and development in Europe spread evenly among the different regions of the continent. It emerges that dependency from the large transnational corporations is incompatible with a balanced, regional development. Finally, we discuss cross-national and historical lessons learned from the views of dependency and Schumpeterian perspectives for current policy-making in Europe, and opt for an industrial policy approach in the tradition of former EU-Commission President (1985-1995) Jacques Delors.Lisbon process, European Union, Latin America, Dependency theory

    Alternative Composite Lisbon Development Strategy Indices: A Comparison of EU, USA, Japan and Korea

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    This study addresses the measurement of two composite Lisbon strategy indices that quantifies the level and patterns of development for ranking countries. The first index is nonparametric labelled as Lisbon strategy index (LSI). It is composed of six components: general economics, employment, innovation research, economic reform, social cohesion and environment, each generated from a number of Lisbon indicators. LSI by reducing the complexity of the set of indicators, it makes the ranking procedures quite simple. The second and parametric index is based on principal component analysis. Despite the difference in the ranking by the two indices, it is shown that the United States outperformed most EU-member states. Our investigations also show evidence of significant dynamic changes taking place, as the countries of the Union struggle to achieve the Lisbon goals. The necessity of a real reform agenda in several old and new members and candidate countries emerges from our analysis. We briefly refer to two important European phenomena emerging from our data analysis and discuss the possible lessons learned from the Korean development strategyEconomic development, composite index, Lisbon Agenda
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