3,363 research outputs found

    Making sense of innovation by R&D and non-R&D innovators in low technology contexts: a forgotten lesson for policymakers

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    This paper attempts to use an integrated theory based on a firm鈥檚 internal and external sources of knowledge framework to analyze how different are R&D from non-R&D activities to innovate, specially in a context of low and medium low tech (LMT) sectors where most of the firms are SMEs. Simultaneously, the paper also explores the key differences between R&D and non-R&D innovators. The empirical analysis is based on a representative panel of 2023 Spanish manufacturing firms for 2005 and 2006 from the Spanish Ministry of Industry. Innovation in product and process is explained using non-R&D variables such as in Marketing, Design or hiring tertiary degree employees. Only innovation in product is explained by R&D expenditures. Addressing innovation in process, R&D variables work in few cases and neither R&D expenditures but occasionally R&D employees and are specially relevant the non-R&D variables. The interaction (moderating) effect is specially negative and significant, addressing the substitution effect with different implications regarding product or process innovation. Therefore, innovation can be explained using non-R&D variables such as investments in Marketing, Design, and other routines linked to human resources, technology monitoring committees or the existence of a formal plan to innovate. The firms with more internal resources, those which conduct R&D activities present a better AC and it leads to engage in cooperation agreements and access to external flows of knowledge. The paper has important implications for policymakers due to the fact that most of policies for R&D are based on R&D programmes, while there are other realities: non-R&D factors which also explain innovation, specially when considering low tech sector contexts. El presente art铆culo usa la teor铆a de recursos y capacidades para, a trav茅s de los recursos internos y externos de las empresas, analizar las actividades de R&D y las actividades de no-R&D en su impacto sobre la performance de innovaci贸n de la empresa, en un contexto sectorial de baja y media tecnolog铆a. Asimismo, el art铆culo explora el rol innovador de las empresas que hacen R&D y las que no lo hacen. Con una muestra de 2023 empresas manufactureras espa帽olas, obtenemos un comportamiento innovador para la innovaci贸n en producto y en proceso y, sobre todo, observando que las actividades de R&D tienen muy poco peso explicativo sobre el resultado de innovaci贸n. El art铆culo presenta implicaciones para la Academia y los policymakers, sobre todo por el hecho de que la mayor铆a de las pol铆ticas de innovaci贸n se basan en actividades de R&D.fuentes de innovaci贸n, estrategias de b煤squeda de conocimiento externo, cooperaci贸n tecnol贸gica, capacidad de absorci贸n. innovation sources, technology cooperation, absorptive capacity, search strategies.

    Growth and texture of Spark Plasma Sintered Al2O3 ceramics: a combined analysis of X-rays and Electron Back Scatter Diffraction

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    Textured alumina ceramics were obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of undoped commercial a-Al2O3 powders. Various parameters (density, grain growth, grain size distribution) of the alumina ceramics, sintered at two typical temperatures 1400{\deg}C and 1700{\deg}C, are investigated. Quantitative textural and structural analysis, carried out using a combination of Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), are represented in the form of mapping, and pole figures. The mechanical properties of these textured alumina ceramics include high elastic modulus and hardness value with high anisotropic nature, opening the door for a large range of applicationsComment: 16 pages, 6 figures, submitted to J. Appl. Phy

    Measurements of W H and ZH production in the H 鈫 bb炉 decay channel in pp collisions at 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    Art铆culo escrito por un elevado n煤mero de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboraci贸n, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UA

    Traumatic brain injury leads to alterations in contusional cortical miRNAs involved in dementia

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    There is compelling evidence that head injury is a significant environmental risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) accelerates the onset of AD. Amyloid-尾 plaques and tau aggregates have been observed in the post-mortem brains of TBI patients; however, the mechanisms leading to AD neuropathology in TBI are still unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that focal TBI induces changes in miRNA expression in and around affected areas, resulting in the altered expression of genes involved in neurodegeneration and AD pathology. For this purpose, we performed a miRNA array in extracts from rats subjected to experimental TBI, using the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model. In and around the contusion, we observed alterations of miRNAs associated with dementia/AD, compared to the contralateral side. Specifically, the expression of miR-9 was significantly upregulated, while miR-29b, miR-34a, miR-106b, miR-181a and miR-107 were downregulated. Via qPCR, we confirmed these results in an additional group of injured rats when compared to na茂ve animals. Interestingly, the changes in those miRNAs were concomitant with alterations in the gene expression of mRNAs involved in amyloid generation and tau pathology, such as 尾-APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1) and Glycogen synthase-3-尾 (GSK3尾). In addition increased levels of neuroinflammatory markers (TNF-伪), glial activation, neuronal loss, and tau phosphorylation were observed in pericontusional areas. Therefore, our results suggest that the secondary injury cascade in TBI affects miRNAs regulating the expression of genes involved in AD dementia

    Measurement of hadronic event shapes in high-pT multijet final states at 鈭歴 = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detecto

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    Art铆culo escrito por un elevado n煤mero de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboraci贸n, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UA

    Measurements of top-quark pair single- and double-differential cross-sections in the all-hadronic channel in pp collisions at 鈭歴 = 13 TeV using the ATLAS detector

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    Art铆culo escrito por un elevado n煤mero de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboraci贸n, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UA
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