35 research outputs found

    Enfermedad injerto contra hu茅sped en el trasplante de sangre de cord贸n umbilical de donante no emparentado en adultos con enfermedades hematol贸gicas malignas

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    Comparado con la sangre perif茅rica y la m茅dula 贸sea como fuentes de progenitores hematopoy茅ticos de donante no emparentado, la sangre de cord贸n umbilical desencadena una menor alorreactividad contra el receptor, lo que permite el uso de donantes con una mayor disparidad del sistema HLA. Un menor n煤mero de linfocitos T en la unidades de cord贸n umbilical (UCU), pero con un mayor porcentaje de linfocitos T naive, explica en parte la menor incidencia de enfermedad injerto contra hu茅sped (EICH) en el trasplante de sangre de cord贸n umbilical (TSCU) en comparaci贸n con otras fuentes. Sin embargo, este porcentaje relativamente bajo no impide que esta complicaci贸n contribuya directa e indirectamente a la morbilidad y mortalidad en una proporci贸n significativa de pacientes. Conocer en detalle la incidencia, formas y grados de presentaci贸n y los factores predictivos de desarrollo de la EICH, as铆 como la respuesta a los tratamientos, podr铆an ayudarnos a implementar nuevas estrategias de prevenci贸n y tratamiento m谩s eficaces. Este trabajo analiza la EICH aguda y cr贸nica en 300 pacientes adultos consecutivos con hemopat铆as malignas sometidos a TSCU con acondicionamiento mieloablativo. Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo que recoge la experiencia del Hospital La Fe de Valencia a lo largo de casi 19 a帽os. Con una mediana de seguimiento superior a los 5 a帽os, este estudio muestra datos de supervivencia global (SG) comparable a otras series no seleccionadas con diferentes fuentes de progenitores hematopoy茅ticos. El autotrasplante impact贸 de forma significativa en la SG. La incidencia de EICH aguda global fue del 62% y II-IV del 39%, e influye en gran medida en la morbimortalidad del procedimiento, sobre todo infecciosa (73% de las causas de muerte). La incompatibilidad de sexo entre donante (mujer) y receptor (var贸n) se distingui贸 como factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de formas graves de EICH aguda. El porcentaje de respuestas al tratamiento de primera l铆nea (corticoides 2 mg/kg o 20 mg/kg) de la EICH aguda fue del 69%, sin detectarse diferencias entre la dosis de corticoides en cuanto al porcentaje de respuestas o SG. La LDH parece 煤til a la hora de predecir la respuesta y el pron贸stico tras el tratamiento de la EICH. Aquellos pacientes con EICH aguda y corticoides sist茅micos tuvieron una peor recuperaci贸n de linfocitos B y T helper 3 y 6 meses despu茅s del trasplante, lo que puede ayudar a explicar el mayor porcentaje de muertes por causa infecciosa en estos pacientes. La incidencia global de EICH cr贸nica fue del 60%, con un 41% de formas extensas. El hecho de haber desarrollado la EICH aguda con anterioridad parece influir en la probabilidad de desarrollar la EICH cr贸nica, sobre todo en su forma extensa. Como conclusi贸n, este trabajo podr谩 mejorar la selecci贸n de los pacientes y de las UCU, optimizar los esquemas de profilaxis de la EICH, e impulsar la investigaci贸n sobre factores de riesgo, clasificaci贸n y factores predictivos de respuesta al tratamiento de la EICH

    Identifying Early Infections in the Setting of CRS With Routine and Exploratory Serum Proteomics and the HT10 Score Following CD19 CAR-T for Relapsed/Refractory B-NHL

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    Infections; Serum proteomicsInfeccions; Prote貌mica s猫ricaInfecciones; Prote贸mica s茅ricaEarly fever after chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy can reflect both an infection or cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Identifying early infections in the setting of CRS and neutropenia represents an unresolved clinical challenge. In this retrospective observational analysis, early fever events (day 0鈥30) were characterized as infection versus CRS in 62 patients treated with standard-of-care CD19.CAR-T for relapsed/refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Routine serum inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], procalcitonin [PCT]) were recorded daily. Exploratory plasma proteomics were performed longitudinally in 52 patients using a multiplex proximity extension assay (Olink proteomics). Compared with the CRSonly cohort, we noted increased event-day IL-6 (median 2243 versus 64 pg/mL, P = 0.03) and particularly high PCT levels (median 1.6 versus 0.3 碌g/L, P < 0.0001) in the patients that developed severe infections. For PCT, an optimal discriminatory threshold of 1.5 碌g/L was established (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUCROC] = 0.78). Next, we incorporated day-of-fever PCT levels with the patient-individual CAR-HEMATOTOX score. In a multicenter validation cohort (n = 125), we confirmed the discriminatory capacity of this so-called HT10 score for early infections at first fever (AUCROC = 0.87, P < 0.0001, sens. 86%, spec. 86%). Additionally, Olink proteomics revealed pronounced immune dysregulation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with severe infections as evidenced by an increased ANGPT2/1 ratio and an altered CD40/CD40L-axis. In conclusion, the high discriminatory capacity of the HT10 score for infections highlights the advantage of dynamic risk assessment and supports the incorporation of PCT into routine inflammatory panels. Candidate markers from Olink proteomics may further refine risk-stratification. If validated prospectively, the score will enable risk-adapted decisions on antibiotic use.This work was supported by a grant within the Gilead Research Scholar Program (to KR, MS). Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) research grant provided within the Sonderforschungbereich SFB-TRR 388/1 2021 鈥 452881907, and DFG research grant 451580403 (to MS). The work was further supported by the Bavarian Elite Graduate Training Network (to MS), the Wilhelm-Sander Stiftung (to MS, project no. 2018.087.1), the Else-Kr枚ner-Fresenius Stiftung (to MS), and the Bavarian Center for Cancer Research (BZKF). KR received a fellowship from the School of Oncology of the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK). KR, VB, and VLB were funded by the Else Kr枚ner Forschungskolleg (EKFK) within the Munich Clinician Scientist Program (MCSP)

    Monitoring of plasma Torque teno virus, total Anelloviridae and Human Pegivirus 1 viral load for the prediction of infectious events and acute graft versus host disease in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation setting

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    Anelloviridae and Human Pegivirus 1 (HPgV-1) blood burden have been postulated to behave as surrogate markers for immunosuppression in transplant recipients. Here, we assessed the potential utility plasma Torque teno virus (TTV), total Anelloviridae (TAV), and HPgV-1 load monitoring for the identification of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients (allo-HSCT) at increased risk of infectious events or acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD). In this single-center, observational study, plasma TTV DNA, TAV DNA, and HPgV-1 RNA loads were monitored in 75 nonconsecutive allo-HSCT recipients (median age, 54 years). Monitoring was conducted before at baseline or by days +30, +60, +90, +120, and +180 after transplantation. Pneumonia due to different viruses or Pneumocystis jirovecii, BK polyomavirus-associated haemorrhagic cystitis (BKPyV-HC), and Cytomegalovirus DNAemia were the infectious events considered in the current study. Kinetics of plasma TTV, TAV DNA, and HPgV-1 RNA load was comparable, with though and peak levels measured by days +30 and day +90 (+120 for HPgV-1). Forty patients (53%) developed one or more infectious events during the first 180 days after allo-HSCT, whereas 29 patients (39%) had aGvHD (grade II-IV in 18). Neither, TTV, TAV, nor HPgV-1 loads were predictive of overall infection or CMV DNAemia. A TTV DNA load cut-off 鈮4.40 log10 (pretransplant) and 鈮4.58 log10 (baseline) copies/mL predicted the occurrence of BKPyV-HC (sensitivity 鈮89%, negative predictive value, 鈮96%). TTV DNA loads 鈮3.38 log10 by day +30 anticipated the occurrence of aGvHD (sensitivity, 90%; negative predictive value, 97%). Pretransplant HPgV-1 loads were significantly lower (p = 0.03) in patients who had aGvHD than in those who did not. Monitoring of TTV DNA or HPgV-1 RNA plasma levels either before or early after transplantation may be ancillary to identify allo-HSCT recipients at increased risk of BKPyV-HC or aGvHD

    Severe infections and infection-related mortality in a large series of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide

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    Severe infections and their attributable mortality are major complications in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We herein report 236 adult patients who received haploSCT with PTCy. The median follow-up for survivors was 37 months. The overall incidence of bloodstream infections by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria at 37 months was 51% and 46%, respectively. The incidence of cytomegalovirus infection was 69%, while Epstein Barr virus infections occurred in 10% of patients and hemorrhagic cystitis in 35% of cases. Invasive fungal infections occurred in 11% at 17 months. The 3-year incidence of infection-related mortality was 19%. The median interval from transplant to IRM was 3 months (range 1-30), 53% of IRM occurred >100 days post-haploSCT. Risk factors for IRM included age >50 years, lymphoid malignancy, and developing grade III-IV acute GvHD. Bacterial infections were the most common causes of IRM (51%), mainly due to gram-negative bacilli BSI. In conclusion, severe infections are the most common causes of NRM after haploSCT with PTCy, with a reemergence of gram-negative bacilli as the most lethal pathogens. More studies focusing on the severe infections after haploSCT with PTCy and differences with other types of alloSCT in adults are clearly warranted

    Real鈥恮orld evidence of tisagenlecleucel for the treatment of relapsed or refractory large B鈥恈ell lymphoma

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    Tisagenlecleucel (tisa-cel) is a second-generation autologous CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy approved for relapsed/refractory (R/R) large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). The approval was based on the results of phase II JULIET trial, with a best overall response rate (ORR) and complete response (CR) rate in infused patients of 52% and 40%, respectively. We report outcomes with tisa-cel in the standard-of-care (SOC) setting for R/R LBCL. Data from all patients with R/R LBCL who underwent leukapheresis from December 2018 until June 2020 with the intent to receive SOC tisa-cel were retrospectively collected at 10 Spanish institutions. Toxicities were graded according to ASTCT criteria and responses were assessed as per Lugano 2014 classification. Of 91 patients who underwent leukapheresis, 75 (82%) received tisa-cel therapy. Grade 3 or higher cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity occurred in 5% and 1%, respectively; non-relapse mortality was 4%. Among the infused patients, best ORR and CR were 60% and 32%, respectively, with a median duration of response of 8.9 months. With a median follow-up of 14.1 months from CAR T-cell infusion, median progression-free survival and overall survival were 3 months and 10.7 months, respectively. At 12 months, patients in CR at first disease evaluation had a PFS of 87% and OS of 93%. Patients with an elevated lactate dehydrogenase showed a shorter PFS and OS on multivariate analysis. Treatment with tisa-cel for patients with relapsed/refractory LBCL in a European SOC setting showed a manageable safety profile and durable complete responses

    Post-transplant cyclophosphamide and sirolimus based graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia

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    Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has emerged as a promising graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, no studies have reported the efficacy of a GvHD prophylaxis based on PTCy with sirolimus (Sir-PTCy) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this retrospective study, we analyze the use of sirolimus in combination with PTCy, with or without mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), on 242 consecutive adult patients with AML undergoing a myeloablative first allo-HSCT from different donor types, in three European centers between January 2017 and December 2020. Seventy-seven (32%) patients received allo-HSCT from HLA-matched sibling donor, 101 (42%) from HLA-matched and mismatched unrelated donor, and 64 (26%) from haploidentical donor. Except for neutrophil and platelet engraftment, which was slower in the haploidentical cohort, no significant differences were observed in major transplant outcomes according to donor type in univariate and multivariate analysis. GvHD prophylaxis with Sir-PTCy, with or without MMF, is safe and effective in patients with AML undergoing myeloablative allo-HSCT, resulting in low rates of transplant-related mortality, relapse/progression, and acute and chronic GvHD in all donor settings

    Impact of SCHOLAR-1 Criteria on Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy Efficacy in Aggressive B Lymphoma: A Real-World GELTAMO/GETH Study

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    In the pre-chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy era, the SCHOLAR-1 study identified a group of patients with refractory aggressive B cell lymphoma (ABCL) with particularly poor prognoses. We recently published our real -world data from Spain, focused on this SCHOLAR-1 refractory group, and compared patients who underwent CAR-T therapy with the previous standard of care. In this study, we found that the efficacy of CAR-T therapy in refractory patients, in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), was superior to that of the treatments available in the pre-CAR-T era. The main objective of these new analyses was to analyze treatment efficacy in terms of response rates and survival for patients with ABCL with or without the SCHOLAR-1 criteria. In addition, we ana-lyzed the prognostic impact of each SCHOLAR-1 criterion independently. Our study aimed to assess the prognostic impact of SCHOLAR-1 criteria on ABCL patients treated with CAR-T therapy in Spain. This multicenter, retrospective, observational study. We included all adult patients treated with commercially available CAR-T cell products and diag-nosed with ABCL different from primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma between February 2019 and July 2022. Patients meeting any SCHOLAR-1 criteria (progressive disease as the best response to any line of therapy, stable dis-ease as the best response to >4 cycles of first-line therapy or >2 cycles of later-line therapy, or relapse at <12 months after autologous stem cell transplantation [auto-SCT]) in the line of treatment before CAR-T therapy (SCHOLAR-1 group) were compared with those not meeting any of these criteria (non-SCHOLAR-1 group). To analyze the prognos-tic impact of individual SCHOLAR-1 criteria, all the patients who met any of the SCHOLAR-1 criteria at any time were included to assess whether these criteria have the same prognostic impact in the CAR-T era. In addition, patients were grouped according to whether they were refractory to the first line of treatment, refractory to the last line of treatment, or relapsed early after auto-SCT. The PFS and OS were calculated from the time of appearance of the SCHOLAR-1 refractoriness criteria. Of 329 patients treated with CAR-T (169 with axi-cel and 160 with tisa-cel), 52 were in the non-SCHOLAR-1 group and 277 were in the SCHOLAR-1 group. We found significantly better outcomes in the non-SCHOLAR-1 patients compared with the SCHOLAR-1 patients (median PFS of 12.2 and 3.3 months, respectively; P = .009). In addition, axi-cel showed better results in terms of efficacy than tisa-cel for both the non SCHOLAR-1 group (hazard ratio [HR] for PFS, 2.7 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1 to 6.7; P = .028]; HR for OS, 7.1 [95% CI, 1.5 to 34.6; P = .015]) and SCHOLAR-1 group (HR for PFS, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.3 to 2.5; P < .001]; HR for OS, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.2 to 2.6; P = .002]), but also significantly more toxicity. Finally, separately analyzing the prognostic impact of each SCHOLAR-1 criterion revealed that refractoriness to the last line of treatment was the variable with the most significant impact on survival. In conclusion, SCHOLAR-1 refractoriness criteria notably influence the efficacy of CAR-T therapy. In our experience, axi-cel showed better efficacy than tisa-cel for both SCHOLAR-1 and non-SCHOLAR-1 patients. Refractoriness to the last line of treatment was the variable with the most significant impact on survival in the CAR-T therapy era.(c) 2023 The American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc

    Recommendations for screening, monitoring, prevention, and prophylaxis of infections in adult and pediatric patients receiving CAR T-cell therapy : a position paper

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    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is one of the most promising emerging treatments for B-cell malignancies. Recently, two CAR T-cell products (axicabtagene ciloleucel and tisagenlecleucel) have been approved for patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia; many other CAR-T constructs are in research for both hematological and non-hematological diseases. Most of the patients receiving CAR-T therapy will develop fever at some point after infusion, mainly due to cytokine release syndrome (CRS). The onset of CRS is often indistinguishable from an infection, which makes management of these patients challenging. In addition to the lymphodepleting chemotherapy and CAR T cells, the treatment of complications with corticosteroids and/or tocilizumab increases the risk of infection in these patients. Data regarding incidence, risk factors and prevention of infections in patients receiving CAR-T cell therapy are scarce. To assist in patient care, a multidisciplinary team from hospitals designated by the Spanish Ministry of Health to perform CAR-T therapy prepared these recommendations. We reviewed the literature on the incidence, risk factors, and management of infections in adult and pediatric patients receiving CAR-T cell treatment. Recommendations cover different areas: monitoring and treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia, prevention, prophylaxis, and management of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections as well as vaccination prior and after CAR-T cell therapy

    Best Treatment Option for Patients With Refractory Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma in the CAR-T Cell Era: Real-World Evidence From GELTAMO/GETH Spanish Groups

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    Real-world evidence comparing the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy against that of the previous standard of care (SOC) for refractory large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) is scarce. We retrospectively collected data from patients with LBCL according to SCHOLAR-1 criteria treated with commercial CAR T-cell therapy in Spain (204 patients included and 192 treated, 101 with axicabtagene ciloleucel [axi-cel], and 91 with tisagenlecleucel [tisa-cel]) and compared the results with a historical refractory population of patients (n = 81) obtained from the GELTAMO-IPI study. We observed superior efficacy for CAR-T therapy (for both axi-cel and tisa-cel) over pSOC, with longer progression-free survival (PFS) (median of 5.6 vs. 4-6 months, p <= 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (median of 15 vs. 8 months, p < 0.001), independently of other prognostic factors (HR: 0.59 (95% CI: 0.44-0.80); p < 0.001] for PFS, and 0.45 [(95% CI: 0.31-0.64)] for OS). Within the CAR-T cohort, axi-cel showed longer PFS (median of 7.3 versus 2.8 months, respectively, p = 0.027) and OS (58% versus 42% at 12 months, respectively, p = 0.048) than tisa-cel. These differences were maintained in the multivariable analysis. On the other hand, axi-cel was independently associated with a higher risk of severe cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy is superior to pSOC in the real-world setting. Furthermore, axi-cel could be superior in efficacy to tisa-cel, although more toxic, in this group of refractory patients according to SCHOLAR-1 criteria
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