927 research outputs found

    Opening Schools to Students' Informal Digital Knowledge to Enable the Emancipatory Employment of Digital Media

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    While classes become more heterogeneous and children grow up as digital natives, instruction is still characterized by an emphasis on middle-class children and analogue media. Moreover, national and international comparative studies have repeatedly shown that Germany in OECD comparisons often ranks last in terms of the level of digital learning opportunities in schools. A gap exists between children's lifeworld experiences and informal learning processes in a digital world on the one hand and digital learning opportunities at school on the other. Thus, schools do not offer content and digital infrastructure that links to students' informal digital knowledge. Therefore, there is a need to discuss how schools can integrate the emancipatory power of digitalization

    The emergence and development of the German dual vocational system: Between crises and praises

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    In this article we give an overview of the emergence and development of the German dual vocational training system. We show how it developed from training young people in the guilds in the Middle Ages towards a corporatist system including several actors and learning locations. Due to its flexibility and corporative character, the German vocational training system has managed to emerge strengthened from several social changes that threatened its existence. It is currently regarded as key for Germans economic success and social integration of approximately half of GermanyÔÇÖs school leavers in preparing them for the world of work

    Die Zivilgesellschaft in den neuen Bundesla╠łndern: eine empirische Studie am Beispiel der Lehrstellenkrise in Thu╠łringen

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    An Hand der Reaktionen auf die gravierende Anzahl an fehlenden betrieblichen Ausbildungs-stellen in den neuen Bundesl├Ąndern wird eine Bestandsaufnahme der Zivilgesellschaft in Ost-deutschland vorgenommen. Es werden Faktoren dargestellt, die eine Entstehung zivilgesell-schaftlichen Engagements beeinflussen. Im Anschluss an die Beobachtung des Untersu-chungsfalls in Form von statistischen Daten im Zeitraum von 1999-2004 erfolgten Interviews mit zivilgesellschaftlichen Akteuren und mit Personen, die beruflich f├╝r die Schaffung eines besseren Ausbildungsplatzangebots in Th├╝ringen t├Ątig waren. 24 der gef├╝hrten Leitfadenin-terviews bilden die Datenbasis dieser Untersuchung, die sich methodisch an der Grounded Theory orientiert

    The Web2 environment as a platform for making natural and cultural values accessible to potential and actual clients

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    Services like tourism have to use the possibilities of modern advertising. In particular, these include the World Wide Web (WWW). This platform brings its products and services directly to the customers. To place the information about a region and its tourist offer in optimal manner requires exact definition of elements in the Web based tourist information system (WETIS) and their presentation. We discuss the elements and their integration in other services, the data structures and types, maps and their interactivity. Furthermore, we present tourism related data of selected Slovakian villages and cities. Finally, we give a report regarding our demonstration web page and future development. The usual tourist information on the web usually relates to the most interesting historical or cultural sights in the region and is marketing oriented. In this way the full image of history and beauty of the characteristic towns and villages is usually missed. Our intention was - in cooperation with the Geotourism students of the Institute if Geotourism - to map also these features of Eastern Slovakia and of the NE Carpathians. As the web is to serve mainly the tourist community, the map connects to useful information on various facilities available at the given locality. The detailed photo-documentation makes it possible e.g. also to see each traditional house. This is interesting as the number of these houses is decreasing. They are replaced by modern buildings, which lack the regional and local flavour.

    CERTIFICATION OF THE MASS FRACTION OF PERFLUORALKYL SUBSTANCES (PFASs) IN FISH TISSUE (PIKE-PERCH): IRMM-427

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    This report describes the production of IRMM-427, a fish material certified for the mass fraction of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The material was produced following ISO Guide 34:2009. The starting material for the CRM is naturally contaminated pike-perch fillets originating from the rivers Nieuwe Merwede and Amer in the Netherlands. After converting the tissue into a paste, the material was sterilized by autoclavation at 120 ┬░C and the jars stored at 18 ┬░C. Between-unit homogeneity was quantified and stability during dispatch and storage were assessed in accordance with ISO Guide 35:2006. Within-unit homogeneity was quantified to determine the minimum sample intake. The material was characterised by an intercomparison among laboratories of demonstrated competence and in most cases adhering to ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Technically invalid results were removed but no outlier was eliminated on statistical grounds only. Uncertainties of the certified values were estimated in compliance with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) and include uncertainties related to possible inhomogeneity, instability and characterisation. The material is intended for the quality control and assessment of method performance. As any reference material, it can also be used for control charts or validation studies. The CRM is available in glass jars containing approximately 35 g of fish paste. The minimum amount of sample to be used is 1 g.JRC.D.5-Standards for Food Bioscienc

    Induction of biotransformation enzymes by the carcinogenic air-pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone in liver, kidney and lung, after intra-tracheal instillation in rats

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    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), a carcinogenic air pollutant, was investigated for its ability to induce cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1/2 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) in liver, kidney and lung of rats treated by intra-tracheal instillation. The organs used were from a previous study performed to determine the persistence of 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts in target and non-target tissues (Bieler et al., Carcinogenesis 28 (2007) 1117-1121, [22]). NQO1 is the enzyme reducing 3-NBA to N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-3-ABA) and CYP1A enzymes oxidize a human metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA), to yield the same reactive intermediate. 3-NBA and 3-ABA are both activated to species forming DNA adducts by cytosols and/or microsomes isolated from rat lung, the target organ for 3-NBA carcinogenicity, and from liver and kidney. Each compound generated the same five DNA adducts detectable by P-32-postlabelling. When hepatic cytosols from rats treated with 0.2 or 2 mg/kg body weight of 3-NBA were incubated with 3-NBA, DNA adduct formation was 3.2- and 8.6-fold higher, respectively, than in incubations with cytosols from control animals. Likewise, cytosols isolated from lungs and kidneys of rats exposed to 3-NBA more efficiently activated 3-NBA than those of control rats. This increase corresponded to an increase in protein levels and enzymatic activities of NQO1. Incubations of hepatic, pulmonary or renal microsomes of 3-NBA-treated rats with 3-ABA led to an 9.6-fold increase in DNA-adduct formation relative to controls. The highest induction in DNA-adduct levels was found in lung. The stimulation of DNA-adduct formation correlated with expression of CYP1A1/2 induced by the intra-tracheal instillation of 3-NBA. The results demonstrate that 3-NBA induces NQO1 and CYP1A1/2 in livers, lungs and kidneys of rats after intra-tracheal instillation, thereby enhancing its own genotoxic and carcinogenic potential. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    A SME self-assessment tool: integrating an impact-& investment scan and a pre-matching platform (A prototype designed by actors of the sustainable finance community)

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    Scaling up sustainable finance in agriculture is limited by several systemic bottlenecks. To address these, CCAFS organized a design thinking series with actors of the sustainable community. This Info Note details the final prototype of the SME self-assessment tool that can help accelerate SMEÔÇÖs investment readiness. The Sustainable Finance Challenges Series was implemented with funds by ACIAR and the Ministry of Nature, Agriculture and Food Quality of the Netherlands

    The certification of the mass concentration of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water: IRMM-428

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    This report describes the production of IRMM-428, a water material certified for the mass fraction of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The material was produced following ISO Guide 34:2009. The starting material for the CRM is tap drinking water, collected in Nieuwegein, the Netherlands. The material was spiked with a mixture of PFASs, bottled and sterilised by gamma irradiation, before storage at -20 ┬║C . Between unit-homogeneity was quantified and stability during dispatch and storage were assessed in accordance with ISO Guide 35:2006. Within-unit homogeneity was quantified to determine the minimum sample intake. The material was characterised by an intercomparison among laboratories of demonstrated competence and in most cases adhering to ISO/IEC 17025. Technically invalid results were removed but no outlier was eliminated on statistical grounds only. Uncertainties of the certified values were calculated in compliance with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) and include uncertainties related to possible inhomogeneity, instability and characterisation. The material is intended for the quality control and assessment of method performance. As any reference material, it can also be used for control charts or validation studies. The CRM is available in high density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles containing 410 mL of water material. The minimum amount of sample to be used is 100 mL.JRC.D.5-Standards for Food Bioscienc

    Computational Modeling in Liver Surgery

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    The need for extended liver resection is increasing due to the growing incidence of liver tumors in aging societies. Individualized surgical planning is the key for identifying the optimal resection strategy and to minimize the risk of postoperative liver failure and tumor recurrence. Current computational tools provide virtual planning of liver resection by taking into account the spatial relationship between the tumor and the hepatic vascular trees, as well as the size of the future liver remnant. However, size and function of the liver are not necessarily equivalent. Hence, determining the future liver volume might misestimate the future liver function, especially in cases of hepatic comorbidities such as hepatic steatosis. A systems medicine approach could be applied, including biological, medical, and surgical aspects, by integrating all available anatomical and functional information of the individual patient. Such an approach holds promise for better prediction of postoperative liver function and hence improved risk assessment. This review provides an overview of mathematical models related to the liver and its function and explores their potential relevance for computational liver surgery. We first summarize key facts of hepatic anatomy, physiology, and pathology relevant for hepatic surgery, followed by a description of the computational tools currently used in liver surgical planning. Then we present selected state-of-the-art computational liver models potentially useful to support liver surgery. Finally, we discuss the main challenges that will need to be addressed when developing advanced computational planning tools in the context of liver surgery.Peer Reviewe
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