138 research outputs found

    No evidence for the benefit of PPIs in the treatment of acute pancreatitis : a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Although current guidelines do not recommend the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the standard of care of acute pancreatitis (AP), they are often prescribed in clinical practice, mainly for ulcer stress prophylaxis. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we evaluated the association between the use of PPIs in the management of AP and various clinical outcomes. We conducted the systematic research in six databases without restrictions on January 24th, 2022. We investigated adult patient with AP, who were treated with PPI compared to conventional therapy. The pooled odds ratios, mean differences, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated with random effect model. We included six RCTs and three cohort studies, consisting of 28,834 patients. We found a significant decrease in the rate of pancreatic pseudocyst formation in patients who received PPI treatment. PPI use was associated with a higher risk of GI bleeding, however this finding could be due to the patients' comorbid conditions. We found no significant difference in the rates of 7-day mortality, length of hospital stay, and acute respiratory distress syndrome between the groups. The available data on this topic are limited; therefore, further well designed RCTs are needed to evaluate the potential benefits and adverse effects of PPIs in AP

    Arg236 in human chymotrypsin B2 (CTRB2) is a key determinant of high enzyme activity, trypsinogen degradation capacity, and protection against pancreatitis.

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    Pancreatic chymotrypsins (CTRs) are digestive proteases that in humans include CTRB1, CTRB2, CTRC, and CTRL. The highly similar CTRB1 and CTRB2 are the products of gene duplication. A common inversion at the CTRB1-CTRB2 locus reverses the expression ratio of these isoforms in favor of CTRB2. Carriers of the inversion allele are protected against the inflammatory disorder pancreatitis presumably via their increased capacity for CTRB2-mediated degradation of harmful trypsinogen. To reveal the protective molecular determinants of CTRB2, we compared enzymatic properties of CTRB1, CTRB2, and bovine CTRA (bCTRA). By evolving substrate-like Schistocerca gregaria proteinase inhibitor 2 (SGPI-2) inhibitory loop variants against the chymotrypsins, we found that the substrate binding groove of the three enzymes had overlapping specificities. Based on the selected sequences, we produced eight SGPI-2 variants. Remarkably, CTRB2 and bCTRA bound these inhibitors with significantly higher affinity than CTRB1. Moreover, digestion of peptide substrates, beta casein, and human anionic trypsinogen unequivocally confirmed that CTRB2 is a generally better enzyme than CTRB1 while the potency of bCTRA lies between those of the human isoforms. Unexpectedly, mutation D236R alone converted CTRB1 to a CTRB2-like high activity protease. Modeling indicated that in CTRB1 Met210 partially obstructed the substrate binding groove, which was relieved by the D236R mutation. Taken together, we identify CTRB2 Arg236 as a key positive determinant, while CTRB1 Asp236 as a negative determinant for chymotrypsin activity. These findings strongly support the concept that in carriers of the CTRB1-CTRB2 inversion allele, the superior trypsinogen degradation capacity of CTRB2 protects against pancreatitis
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