1,908 research outputs found

    Measurement of the top quark pair production cross section in proton-antiproton collisions at Vs=1.96 TeV : hadronic top decays with the d0 detector

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    Of the six quarks in the standard model the top quark is by far the heaviest: 35 times more massive than its partner the bottom quark and more than 130 times heavier than the average of the other five quarks. Its correspondingly small decay width means it tends to decay before forming a bound state. Of all quarks, therefore, the top is the least affected by quark confinement, behaving almost as a free quark. Since in the standard model top quarks couple almost exclusively to bottom quarks (t ! Wb), top quark decays provide a window on the standard model through the direct measurement of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element Vtb. In the same way any lack of top quark decays into W bosons could imply the existence of decay channels beyond the standard model, for example charged Higgs bosons as expected in two-doublet Higgs models: t ! H+b. This thesis sets out to measure the top-antitop quark pair production cross section at a center-of-mass energy of ps = 1:96 TeV in the fully hadronic decay channel. The analysis is performed on 1 fb1 of Tevatron Run IIa data taken with the D0 detector between July 2002 and February 2006. A neural network is used to identify jets from b-quarks and a likelihood ratio method is used to separate signal from background. To avoid reliance on, possibly imperfect, Monte Carlo models for the modelling of the QCD background,\ud the background was modelled using a dedicated data sample. The tt signal was modelled using the alpgen and pythia Monte Carlo event generators. \ud The generated signal sample was passed through the full, geant based, D0\ud detector simulation and reconstructed using the default D0 reconstruction\ud software.\u

    Interpreting and Correcting Medical Image Classification with PIP-Net

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    Part-prototype models are explainable-by-design image classifiers, and a promising alternative to black box AI. This paper explores the applicability and potential of interpretable machine learning, in particular PIP-Net, for automated diagnosis support on real-world medical imaging data. PIP-Net learns human-understandable prototypical image parts and we evaluate its accuracy and interpretability for fracture detection and skin cancer diagnosis. We find that PIP-Net's decision making process is in line with medical classification standards, while only provided with image-level class labels. Because of PIP-Net's unsupervised pretraining of prototypes, data quality problems such as undesired text in an X-ray or labelling errors can be easily identified. Additionally, we are the first to show that humans can manually correct the reasoning of PIP-Net by directly disabling undesired prototypes. We conclude that part-prototype models are promising for medical applications due to their interpretability and potential for advanced model debugging

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an