187 research outputs found

    The synthesis of highly fluorinated pyridine derivatives

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    Social Enterprise and Public Procurement Opportunities

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    These slides are from our 2016 national conference, A Nation That Works: What's It Going to Take? Many social enterprises earn revenue through contracts with state and local governments. Those contracts can be very competitive, and governments' selection processes typically don't account for the ways in which hiring social enterprises can produce additional public benefits. This session will explore the policy opportunities to position social enterprises as qualified competitive bidders for public procurement and contracts and offer two successful models of working with State and local government. Attendees will also learn about the future of California's SB 1219 Employment Social Enterprise, the first statewide piece of legislation certifying social enterprise and granting public procurement and contract preferences similar to those of small business and disabled veteran business enterprises. SB1219 passed the California state Senate and Assembly without opposition, and is currently awaiting the Governor's signature

    Theoretical Investigation of the Electronic Band Structure and Bulk Properties of Diamond

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    Physic

    A case study in Green chemistry: Developing replacements for CFCs

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    Chlorofluorocarbons, CFCs, were developed in the late 1920s for use as safe refrigerant alternatives to sulphur dioxide and ammonia. They were welcomed by industry because of their low toxicity, chemical stability, low flammability, low cost and ease of synthesis. They found wide application as refrigerants, blowing agents, propellants and cleaning agents. Over more than 40 years, applications of CFCs expanded into a wide variety of areas, and grew into a multibillion-dollar industry. Unfortunately, CFCs are not ecologically benign. It became increasingly clear that CFCs were responsible for ozone depletion. In the early 1970s the leading manufacturers of CFCs met to discuss the possible environmental impact of their products.This case study uses a problem based learning approach to take students through the development of replacements for CFCs from the 1970s to today. They investigate the background to the CFC problem and consider data that leads to the decision to investigate possible replacements. They must select and design replacement molecules (HFCs), devise syntheses and then consider the challenge to develop the replacements in a socio-economic and political framework. They also consider the problems posed by existing CFCs, the ‘fridge mountain’ and possible disposal and containment alternatives.The case study brings the story up to date with an investigation of the problems now being associated with HFCs and the search for new alternatives. This activity successfully teaches applied and ‘green’ chemistry via a real life context. The chemistry encountered is of an applied/industrial nature and is set in a socioeconomic context. The influence of political pressures is also brought in when appropriate. Because the activity adopts a problem based approach it is also successful in developing a range of transferable skills, particularly problem solving, teamwork plus verbal and written communication

    Becoming a survey whisperer: applying a video conferencing tool in cognitive interviews to improve a questionnaire used in higher education research

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    This case study details the experiences of two researchers at a large university in the United Kingdom, in carrying out a series of cognitive interviews with students, to examine their interpretations of, and responses to, items on an institution-wide questionnaire. Cognitive interviewing refers to a set of techniques used to assess the ways in which individuals mentally respond to survey questions, with the aim of exploring the accuracy and consistency of interpretations and, if necessary, making revisions. The research was conducted as part of a wider initiative to review the institution’s use of a standardised questionnaire to evaluate student module experiences. The case study describes how a face-to-face research activity was adapted for online delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic, in an attempt to engage students as co-designers. It considers the three key options for conducting cognitive interviews remotely (telephone, video conferencing, and web probing), and provides a critical reflection on the ethical and practical challenges and possibilities presented by using video conferencing as the preferred method. We reflect on our own experiences as researchers, suggest key considerations for those who may wish to engage in online qualitative research 7 activity, and offer links to further helpful resources, to help consolidate and extend readers’ learnin

    SHCal13 Southern Hemisphere calibration, 0–50,000 years cal BP

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    The Southern Hemisphere SHCal04 radiocarbon calibration curve has been updated with the addition of new data sets extending measurements to 2145 cal BP and including the ANSTO Younger Dryas Huon pine data set. Outside the range of measured data, the curve is based upon the Northern Hemisphere data sets as presented in IntCal13, with an interhemispheric offset averaging 43 ± 23 yr modeled by an autoregressive process to represent the short-term correlations in the offset

    Creation and confidence: BME students as academic partners…but where were the staff?

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    This Case Study documents the REACT project 'Creation and Confidence' based at Sheffield Hallam University, which has a larger-than-expected Black Minority and Ethnic (BME) attainment gap; hence, this student group has been constructed as 'hard to reach'. The project team consisted of a range of academic and professional services staff alongside three dedicated student researchers. The project set out to achieve: gaining evidence-based insights into the use of co-design and peer-learning as conduits of confidence-building for and belonging of BME students; developing a scalable approach to building confidence for and fostering belonging of all students; raising awareness of the need to think differently about explanations for BME underachievement. In reality, the team found that staff engagement constituted the biggest barrier, as - no matter how much incontrovertible evidence was presented - other facets of institutional provision were always identified as having priority, which resulted in inertia. This study documents the emotional labour of trying to effect change within a resistant culture. Whilst some of the aims remain unachieved – and, arguably, were always going to be unachievable - there have been some very positive developments and enlightening lessons

    IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0-50,000yeats cal BP

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    The IntCal04 and Marine04 radiocarbon calibration curves have been updated from 12 cal kBP (cal kBP is here defined as thousands of calibrated years before AD 1950), and extended to 50 cal kBP, utilizing newly available data sets that meet the IntCal Working Group criteria for pristine corals and other carbonates and for quantification of uncertainty in both the 14C and calendar timescales as established in 2002. No change was made to the curves from 0–12 cal kBP. The curves were constructed using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) implementation of the random walk model used for IntCal04 and Marine04. The new curves were ratified at the 20th International Radiocarbon Conference in June 2009 and are available in the Supplemental Material at www.radiocarbon.org

    Neurocognitive function in HIV infected patients on antiretroviral therapy

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    OBJECTIVE To describe factors associated with neurocognitive (NC) function in HIV-positive patients on stable combination antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN We undertook a cross-sectional analysis assessing NC data obtained at baseline in patients entering the Protease-Inhibitor-Monotherapy-Versus-Ongoing-Triple therapy (PIVOT) trial. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE NC testing comprised of 5 domains. Raw results were z-transformed using standard and demographically adjusted normative datasets (ND). Global z-scores (NPZ-5) were derived from averaging the 5 domains and percentage of subjects with test scores >1 standard deviation (SD) below population means in at least two domains (abnormal Frascati score) calculated. Patient characteristics associated with NC results were assessed using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS Of the 587 patients in PIVOT, 557 had full NC results and were included. 77% were male, 68% Caucasian and 28% of Black ethnicity. Mean (SD) baseline and nadir CD4+ lymphocyte counts were 553(217) and 177(117) cells/µL, respectively, and HIV RNA was <50 copies/mL in all. Median (IQR) NPZ-5 score was -0.5 (-1.2/-0) overall, and -0.3 (-0.7/0.1) and -1.4 (-2/-0.8) in subjects of Caucasian and Black ethnicity, respectively. Abnormal Frascati scores using the standard-ND were observed in 51%, 38%, and 81%, respectively, of subjects overall, Caucasian and Black ethnicity (p<0.001), but in 62% and 69% of Caucasian and Black subjects using demographically adjusted-ND (p = 0.20). In the multivariate analysis, only Black ethnicity was associated with poorer NPZ-5 scores (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS In this large group of HIV-infected subjects with viral load suppression, ethnicity but not HIV-disease factors is closely associated with NC results. The prevalence of abnormal results is highly dependent on control datasets utilised. TRIAL REGISTRY ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01230580
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