19,086 research outputs found

    Measures of the solar spectral irradiance between 1200 and 3000 A

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    Tabulated data on solar flux measurements are presented. The measurements, taken from balloons, rockets and satellites, are not new data, but have been critically re-evaluated. The eleven year sunspot cycle is discussed. Also discussed is the brightness temperature. The effect of solar radiation at various wavelengths, on the photochemistry of stratospheric ozone is briefly discussed

    A discontinuous Galerkin method for the Vlasov-Poisson system

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    A discontinuous Galerkin method for approximating the Vlasov-Poisson system of equations describing the time evolution of a collisionless plasma is proposed. The method is mass conservative and, in the case that piecewise constant functions are used as a basis, the method preserves the positivity of the electron distribution function and weakly enforces continuity of the electric field through mesh interfaces and boundary conditions. The performance of the method is investigated by computing several examples and error estimates associated system's approximation are stated. In particular, computed results are benchmarked against established theoretical results for linear advection and the phenomenon of linear Landau damping for both the Maxwell and Lorentz distributions. Moreover, two nonlinear problems are considered: nonlinear Landau damping and a version of the two-stream instability are computed. For the latter, fine scale details of the resulting long-time BGK-like state are presented. Conservation laws are examined and various comparisons to theory are made. The results obtained demonstrate that the discontinuous Galerkin method is a viable option for integrating the Vlasov-Poisson system.Comment: To appear in Journal for Computational Physics, 2011. 63 pages, 86 figure

    Upward Point-Set Embeddability

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    We study the problem of Upward Point-Set Embeddability, that is the problem of deciding whether a given upward planar digraph DD has an upward planar embedding into a point set SS. We show that any switch tree admits an upward planar straight-line embedding into any convex point set. For the class of kk-switch trees, that is a generalization of switch trees (according to this definition a switch tree is a 11-switch tree), we show that not every kk-switch tree admits an upward planar straight-line embedding into any convex point set, for any kÔëą2k \geq 2. Finally we show that the problem of Upward Point-Set Embeddability is NP-complete

    Ten Years of Solar Change as Monitored by SBUV and SBUV/2

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    Observations of the Sun by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard Nimbus 7 and the SBUV/2 instrument aboard NOAA-9 reveal variations in the solar irradiance from 1978, to 1988. The maximum to minimum solar change estimated from the Heath and Schlesinger Mg index and wavelength scaling factors is about 4 percent from 210 to 260 nm and 8 percent for 180 to 210 nm; direct measurements of the solar change give values of 1 to 3 percent and 5 to 7 percent, respectively, for the same wavelength range. Solar irradiances were high from the start of observations, late in 1978, until 1983, declined until early 1985, remained approximately constant until mid-1987, and then began to rise. Peak-to-peak 27-day rotational modulation amplitudes were as large as 6 percent at solar maximum and 1 to 2 percent at solar minimum. During occasional intervals of the 1979 to 1983 maximum and again during 1988, the dominant rotational modulation period was 13.5 days. Measurements near 200 to 205 nm show the same rotational modulation behavior but cannot be used to track long-term changes in the Sun because of uncertainties in the characterization of long-term instrument sensitivity changes

    Spontaneous patterning of quantum dots at the air-water interface

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    Nanoparticles deposited at the air-water interface are observed to form circular domains at low density and stripes at higher density. We interpret these patterns as equilibrium phenomena produced by a competition between an attraction and a longer-ranged repulsion. Computer simulations of a generic pair potential with attractive and repulsive parts of this kind, reproduce both the circular and stripe patterns. Such patterns have a potential use in nanoelectronic applications

    Evaluation of the Coverage of 3 Antibiotic Regimens for Neonatal Sepsis in the Hospital Setting Across Asian Countries.

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    Importance: High levels of antimicrobial resistance in neonatal bloodstream isolates are being reported globally, including in Asia. Local hospital antibiogram data may include too few isolates to meaningfully examine the expected coverage of antibiotic regimens. Objective: To assess the coverage offered by 3 antibiotic regimens for empirical treatment of neonatal sepsis in Asian countries. Design, Setting, and Participants: A decision analytical model was used to estimate coverage of 3 prespecified antibiotic regimens according to a weighted-incidence syndromic combination antibiogram. Relevant data to parameterize the models were identified from a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE and Embase. Data from Asian countries published from 2014 onward were of interest. Only data on blood culture isolates from neonates with sepsis, bloodstream infection, or bacteremia reported from the relevant setting were included. Data analysis was performed from April 2019 to July 2019. Exposures: The prespecified regimens of interest were aminopenicillin-gentamicin, third-generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime or ceftriaxone), and meropenem. The relative incidence of different bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility to antibiotics relevant for determining expected concordance with these regimens were extracted. Main Outcomes and Measures: Coverage was calculated on the basis of a decision-tree model incorporating relative bacterial incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility of relevant isolates. Data on 7 bacteria most commonly reported in the included studies were used for estimating coverage, which was reported at the country level. Results: Data from 48 studies reporting on 10 countries and 8376 isolates were used. Individual countries reported 51 (Vietnam) to 6284 (India) isolates. Coverage varied considerably between countries. Meropenem was generally estimated to provide the highest coverage, ranging from 64.0% (95% credible interval [CrI], 62.6%-65.4%) in India to 90.6% (95% CrI, 86.2%-94.4%) in Cambodia, followed by aminopenicillin-gentamicin (from 35.9% [95% CrI, 27.7%-44.0%] in Indonesia to 81.0% [95% CrI, 71.1%-89.7%] in Laos) and cefotaxime or ceftriaxone (from 17.9% [95% CrI, 11.7%-24.7%] in Indonesia to 75.0% [95% CrI, 64.8%-84.1%] in Laos). Aminopenicillin-gentamicin coverage was lower than that of meropenem in all countries except Laos (81.0%; 95% CrI, 71.1%-89.7%) and Nepal (74.3%; 95% CrI, 70.3%-78.2%), where 95% CrIs for aminopenicillin-gentamicin and meropenem were overlapping. Third-generation cephalosporin coverage was lowest of the 3 regimens in all countries. The coverage difference between aminopenicillin-gentamicin and meropenem for countries with nonoverlapping 95% CrIs ranged from -15.9% in China to -52.9% in Indonesia. Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings suggest that noncarbapenem antibiotic regimens may provide limited coverage for empirical treatment of neonatal sepsis in many Asian countries. Alternative regimens must be studied to limit carbapenem consumption

    Nimbus 7 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) spectral scan solar irradiance and Earth radiance product user's guide

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    The archived tape products from the spectral scan mode measurements of solar irradiance (SUNC tapes) and Earth radiance (EARTH tapes) by the Solar Backscatter UV (SBUV) instrument aboard Nimbus 7 are described. Incoming radiation from 160 to 400 nm is measured at intervals of 0.2 nm. The scan-to-scan repeatability of the solar irradiance measurements ranges from approximately 0.5 to 1 percent longward of 280 nm, to 2 percent around 210 nm and 4 percent near 175 nm. The repeatability of the Earth radiance values ranges from 2 to 3 percent at longer wavelengths and low zenith angles to 10 percent at shorter wavelengths and high zenith angles. The tape formats are described in detail, including file structure and contents of each type of record. Catalogs of the tapes and the time period covered are provided, along with lists of the days lacking solar irradiance measurements and the days dedicated to Earth radiance measurements. The method for production of the tapes is outlined and quality control measures are described. How radiances and irradiances are derived from the raw counts, the corrections for changes in instrument sensitivity, and related uncertainties are discussed

    Efficient implementation of the Gutzwiller variational method

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    We present a self-consistent numerical approach to solve the Gutzwiller variational problem for general multi-band models with arbitrary on-site interaction. The proposed method generalizes and improves the procedure derived by Deng et al., Phys. Rev. B. 79 075114 (2009), overcoming the restriction to density-density interaction without increasing the complexity of the computational algorithm. Our approach drastically reduces the problem of the high-dimensional Gutzwiller minimization by mapping it to a minimization only in the variational density matrix, in the spirit of the Levy and Lieb formulation of DFT. For fixed density the Gutzwiller renormalization matrix is determined as a fixpoint of a proper functional, whose evaluation only requires ground-state calculations of matrices defined in the Gutzwiller variational space. Furthermore, the proposed method is able to account for the symmetries of the variational function in a controlled way, reducing the number of variational parameters. After a detailed description of the method we present calculations for multi-band Hubbard models with full (rotationally invariant) Hund's rule on-site interaction. Our analysis shows that the numerical algorithm is very efficient, stable and easy to implement. For these reasons this method is particularly suitable for first principle studies -- e.g., in combination with DFT -- of many complex real materials, where the full intra-atomic interaction is important to obtain correct results.Comment: 19 pages, 7 figure

    Upward Three-Dimensional Grid Drawings of Graphs

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    A \emph{three-dimensional grid drawing} of a graph is a placement of the vertices at distinct points with integer coordinates, such that the straight line segments representing the edges do not cross. Our aim is to produce three-dimensional grid drawings with small bounding box volume. We prove that every nn-vertex graph with bounded degeneracy has a three-dimensional grid drawing with O(n3/2)O(n^{3/2}) volume. This is the broadest class of graphs admiting such drawings. A three-dimensional grid drawing of a directed graph is \emph{upward} if every arc points up in the z-direction. We prove that every directed acyclic graph has an upward three-dimensional grid drawing with (n3)(n^3) volume, which is tight for the complete dag. The previous best upper bound was O(n4)O(n^4). Our main result is that every cc-colourable directed acyclic graph (cc constant) has an upward three-dimensional grid drawing with O(n2)O(n^2) volume. This result matches the bound in the undirected case, and improves the best known bound from O(n3)O(n^3) for many classes of directed acyclic graphs, including planar, series parallel, and outerplanar
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