1,228 research outputs found

    Bodies, gazes and images between hysteria and modernism : tracing the maternal in the case history of 'Frau Emmy von N' and in selected paintings by Suzanne Valadon

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    This thesis is structured around the dual scenarios of doctor/patient and artist/model. Having analysed the underlying politics of class and gender that structured the relationship between doctor and patient, and between artist and model, at the fin-de-siecle, it goes on to examine how these relations were transformed by two developments: the emergence of psychoanalysis in relation to hysteria, and the growing involvement of women as artists in the field of modernist painting. Its key research questions fall, therefore, upon identifying a historical method for understanding the impact of women’s self-enunciation in these scenarios that shifts the now classic image of masculinised modernism in both its psychological and aesthetic dimensions. It is centred upon a close reading of two case studies—that of ‘Frau Emmy von N’ from the Studies on Hysteria, published jointly by Sigmund Freud and Joseph Breuer in 1895, and that of model-turned-artist Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938)—and examines the extent to which the scenarios of doctor/patient and artist/model underwent a radical internal transformation as a result of their reconfiguration by the women involved. Moving between psychoanalysis and modernism at the moment of their historical co-emergence, and re-reading their conjunction through contemporary feminist theory, it also interrogates one of the traditional blind spots of psychoanalysis: maternal subjectivity. In the first two chapters, I revisit Freud’s first written case history of ‘Frau Emmy von N’ in order to explore the significance of Freud’s belated acknowledgement of his patient’s ambivalent experience of motherhood to the history and theory of what would become psychoanalysis. Having tracked the shift in the relations between doctor and patient that occurred over the course of this early, proto-analytic, encounter, I go on to examine a corresponding transformation in my second identified scenario of artist/model. In the third chapter, I consider the social, artistic and psychic dilemmas faced by those self-consciously modem ‘New Women’ who sought in the early years of the twentieth century to participate in modernist art and culture not merely as mute objects of representation, but as creative subjects in their own right. In this chapter, I investigate how the question of the maternal might be processed in the being of women as artists in the modernist moment. Having analysed both the possibilities and limitations of those psychoanalytic theorisations that view feminine creativity as necessarily bound up with depressive mourning for the mother and the maternal body, in the final two chapters, I draw upon the Matrixial theory of Bracha Ettinger in order to consider how the traces of some different relation to the feminine/maternal may be otherwise inscribed in certain paintings of the female nude by Suzanne Valadon.EThOS - Electronic Theses Online ServiceGBUnited Kingdo

    Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.

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    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition

    Multiple novel prostate cancer susceptibility signals identified by fine-mapping of known risk loci among Europeans

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    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous common prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility loci. We have fine-mapped 64 GWAS regions known at the conclusion of the iCOGS study using large-scale genotyping and imputation in 25 723 PrCa cases and 26 274 controls of European ancestry. We detected evidence for multiple independent signals at 16 regions, 12 of which contained additional newly identified significant associations. A single signal comprising a spectrum of correlated variation was observed at 39 regions; 35 of which are now described by a novel more significantly associated lead SNP, while the originally reported variant remained as the lead SNP only in 4 regions. We also confirmed two association signals in Europeans that had been previously reported only in East-Asian GWAS. Based on statistical evidence and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure, we have curated and narrowed down the list of the most likely candidate causal variants for each region. Functional annotation using data from ENCODE filtered for PrCa cell lines and eQTL analysis demonstrated significant enrichment for overlap with bio-features within this set. By incorporating the novel risk variants identified here alongside the refined data for existing association signals, we estimate that these loci now explain ∌38.9% of the familial relative risk of PrCa, an 8.9% improvement over the previously reported GWAS tag SNPs. This suggests that a significant fraction of the heritability of PrCa may have been hidden during the discovery phase of GWAS, in particular due to the presence of multiple independent signals within the same regio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function ðð„with constraintsð ð ð„ „ ðandðŽð„ = ð. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis

    Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome